The firing temperature of a Persian-period kiln excavated at Tel Michal (Makmish), on the Mediterranean coast north of Tel
Aviv, Israel, is estimated from the composition of its pottery, using X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy methods. The kiln
was built with two chambers: an upper one where the vessels were fired and a lower one for the burning. Storage jars that
had been fired and remained inside the kiln are composed of lime tempers and quartz sand in a fired clay matrix that contains
amorphous material and the high-temperature Ca-silicates gehlenite and anorthite. The tempers are composed of re-formed calcite.
Thermal simulation indicates that the composition is compatible with a heating temperature of 800–900°C, which represents
the firing temperature in the upper chamber of the kiln.
Guadiana River Chalcolithic middle basin (Badajoz, Spain) pottery was
in many cases decorated with bone, which suffers a hydroxyapatite to β
tri-calcium phosphate transformation while firing. The evolution of physico-chemical
characteristics of bone decorations and experimentally heated fossil bone
as a function of temperature through 1) major XRD planes, and 2) OH librational
mode at 630 cm–1 in the FTIR spectra let
us establish a correlation between the physico-chemical features and firing
temperature, allowing the estimate of firing temperatures for bone decorated
pottery. What is a reliable criterion to differentiate over potters behavior
and skill during the pottery production.
The study of a limestone and clay mixture using Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray powder spectrometry (XRD) for different firing temperatures are presented. This type of mixture is used in raw minerals in order to obtain industrial clinker. This study permits to know the changes of the iron present during the clinkerization process, its mineralogical transformation with the temperature, and the minimal temperature necessary to obtain a good quality clinker.
Authors:M. Franquelo, M. Robador, V. Ramírez-Valle, A. Durán, M. Jiménez de Haro, and J. Pérez-Rodríguez
Roman ceramics of two hydraulic mortars used to build the pond and water channel of Mithraeum house from Mérida (Spain) have
been studied. The sizes of the ceramic fragments found were different in both of the samples studied, showing different behaviour
in the reactions with the lime. The X-ray diffraction of the ceramic shows the presence of quartz, mica (biotite), anorthite
and hematite accompanied by amorphous phase, being observed scarce vitrification. The presence of mica confirms a firing temperature
for manufacturing the ceramic below 900°C. In one of the ceramics studied, X-ray diffraction did not show calcite. However,
in the FTIR appear bands that could be assigned to carbonates absorptions and likewise, carbonates were identified in the
DTA-TG curves. Ca and small quantities of Si and Al were also identified by SEM-EDX on the surface of the pores that could
be due to an amorphous phase formed in the reaction of lime with the Si and Al of the ceramic. On the other hand, in other
ceramic samples carbonates (about 10%) were detected. The carbonates have been found filling the pores, sometimes accompanied
by a new calcium-aluminium-silicate phase produced by the reaction between the lime and the amorphous phase of the ceramic.
The carbonates and the new phases formed inside the pores are responsible for the decrease of the porosity and for the formation
of new phases during the heating of the ceramics.
Authors:J. A. Stratis, M. Lalia-Kantouri, El. Charalambous, A. Charalambous, and N. Kantiranis
for the estimation of the original firingtemperature of the ceramics [ 9 – 13 ]. On the other hand, the chemical composition of ceramics is related to the raw materials and can be successfully used for the classification of ceramics into groups of
. It was noticed that the micro- and mesopores are reduced in frequency by increasing the firingtemperature but the macropores do not change to a great extent [ 27 ]. For this reason, macropore volumes were not determined. Since the specific micro and
Authors:Dmitar Zorić, Dušan Lazar, Ognjen Rudić, Miroslava Radeka, Jonjaua Ranogajec, and Helena Hiršenberger
fired at three temperatures has a complex internal void structure. The apparent particle density values increase along with the firingtemperature increase, while the water absorption decreases, Table 4 . The apparent particle density and the open
Authors:D. Papadopoulou, Maria Lalia-Kantouri, N. Kantiranis, and J. Stratis
In the present work 39 ancient ceramic sherds from
the archaeological excavation of Abdera, North-Eastern Greece, dating to 7th
century B.C., and 11 local raw clay bricks, fired at temperatures ranging
from 500 to 1000C, were characterized by ICP-AES, powder X-ray diffraction
(PXRD) and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) techniques. It has been found that the
mineralogical composition of the most studied sherds is quartz, feldspars
and micas, which is in agreement with the composition of the local bricks.
Chlorite is also present in a few samples, while there is one completely different
sherd, which belongs to the Ca-rich clays. From the simultaneous TG/DTG and
DTA data, under nitrogen atmosphere in the temperature ranges ambient to 1000C,
we comment on the possible firing temperature and distinguish between samples
of different origin. The existence of muscovite or illite in most of the samples
denotes that the firing temperature was lower than 950C, while the existence
of chlorite means that the firing process in these samples stopped before
700C. A very different thermogram gave the Ca-rich ceramic sherd, due
to the existence of calcite, denoting that the firing temperature was about
Authors:A. Delben, F. Menezes, J. Delben, M. Coelho, and R. Ribeiro
Waste compromises environmental preservation as well human health in
many countries. Recycling is an alternative that sometimes represents the
only economical activity for a significant population in the big cities. Almost
3% of waste materials in Brazil are vitreous. Ceramic production adding waste
glass is possible with advantages of costs reduction associated to decrease
on firing temperatures and to the raw material itself. At present paper up
to 80 mass% of waste glass was added to clay. The sintering temperature decreased
linearly and the shrinkage increased with glass content, an effect more pronounced
for high glass amount.