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brought yellow wine with bright brown color, subtle sweet flavor, and low alcoholicity. Therefore, yellow wine has been deeply popular with customers in China for centuries. In addition, yellow wine is widely known for its health care function. Yellow wine

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fruit content. Many researchers investigated the effect of different additives on quality and on customers' acceptance of fruit juices. Pongsawatamit et al. (2011) analyzed blueberry syrup supplemented with citric acid, sorbic acid, colour, flavor and

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1 Introduction Wuliangye-flavour liquor is one of strong-flavour liquor (Baijiu) in China famous for its century old brewing workshop ( Kim, 2009 ; Fan et al., 2021 ; Wang et al., 2021

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Organic wines produced by using organically cultivated grapes were evaluated using multivariate analysis and profiled by quantitative descriptive analysis. Trained judges rated the intensity of aroma and flavour descriptors. The statistical evaluation of the data demonstrated the close relation between Merlot and Cabernet sauvignon wines, considering their aroma descriptors and between Merlot and Carignan taking into account the taste descriptors. Significant differences among white wines were determined for sweet and bitter attributes and among red wines for sour, sweet, bitter, and astringency descriptors. The results of wine aroma characteristics demonstrated the following major descriptors for each wine type: metallic (Columbard); grape juice, wet wood, vine leaf (Semillon); burned wood (Grenache); dust, sour cherry, tobacco, yeast (Cabernet sauvignon); cork, unripe fruit, cinnamon (Carignan); grape molasses, dry plum (Merlot). Flavor profile of organic wines revealed specific descriptors for each wine type, namely raisin (Columbard); alcohol, rose, vine leaf, sulphur (Semillon); clove, salty (Grenache); flower, sour cherry, melon, cornelian cherry (Cabernet sauvignon), dry plum (Carignan, Merlot).

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In the present work, three volatile Maillard reaction products (maltol, furfuryl alcohol, and furfural) were considered for their supposed ability to act as process markers of dry durum wheat pasta. Hence, a commodity investigation was performed on Made in Italy pasta products and the HS-SPME/GC-MS technique was adopted to detect the target compounds in sixty samples. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate whether the relative abundance of the flavour compounds can differentiate pasta samples processed through mild technologies (traditional methods) from that submitted to intense thermal stress during their elaboration (industrial methods). Results showed that the analysed products were efficiently discriminated according to their claimed manufacturing method by maltol, furfuryl alcohol, and furfural, which thus can serve as reliable pasta process indicators.

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oil has a rich content in n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio that is favorable from nutritional point of view, and both of which make it a recommended edible oil [ 1 ]. On the other hand, with pleasant flavor and taste [ 2

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Flavour profiling by descriptive analysis of apple wines fermented with different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and natural sources of fermentation with or without nitrogen source addition was carried out. Out of 45 attributes used, 38 were found significant and were employed for further evaluation. Generally, the intensities of many of the descriptors in the apple wines were low. Both the natural sources of fermentation (NSF) imparted different flavours notes like lactic, sharp, acetic and fruity to the wine. “W” strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave wines with higher astringency and phenolic flavours, ethyl acetate like, acetaldehyde like flavour, UCD 505 and UCD 522 fermentated wines were peculiar for more ethanolic, sweety and bitter taste, whereas UCD 595 imparted more phenolic, astringent, sour, and ethanolic flavour notes to the wines. The addition of nitrogen source (irrespective of source of fermentation) reduced the development of some flavours considered undesirable (acetic, amyl alcoholic, fusel alcoholic, vegetative). Addition of nitrogen source enhanced the intensity of some other flavour attributes like ethanolic and phenolic in the wines. Due to the same vinification practices (except for the source of fermentation) some modifications in the flavour attributes of apple wines fermented by natural source of fermentation were recorded. The flavour profile of wines fermented by different sources of fermentation, was also reflected in the chemical characteristics examined. Besides higher fermentability, the addition of nitrogen source also affected the physico-chemical characteristics of the wines and consequently, their flavour profile. Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the means of flavour scores generated from flavour profiling, weakly separated and characterized the wines fermented by different sources of fermentation but did not differentiate the wines fermented with or without nitrogen source. It is concluded that the descriptors described here can characterize apple wine of different quality attributes. The list of descriptors, concentration of standards and details of the technique have also been described.

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Volatile flavour substances were isolated from the minced pulp of half ripe and full ripe fruits of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Lucknow-49 by simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE) with diethyl ether as extracting solvent. The concentrate was analysed by GC-MS. Acetic, butyric and hexanoic acids were the predominant acids, trans-2-hexenal and hexanal the predominant aldehydes and ethyl propanoate, methyl butyrate, ethyl butyrate, methyl hexanoate, ethyl hexanoate, cis-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, hexyl acetate, methyl benzoate, methyl octanoate, ethyl benzoate, phenylpropyl acetate and cinnamyl acetate, the esters responsible for the characteristic guava flavour were also present. The amount of total volatile substances was about 20% higher in full ripe fruits. The concentration of acids and most esters increased and that of C6 aldehydes decreased during ripening. The enzyme analysis showed that the polygalacturonase (PG) activity was lower in the ripe fruit, than in the half ripe one, while the β -galactosidase activity was not influenced by maturity stage. The surface and the cell walls of full ripe guava became wrinkled, and parenchyma cells were empty (SEM).

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Tóth-Markus
,
I. Magyar
,
K. Kardos
,
L. Bánszky
, and
A. Maráz

In this study the role of different yeast strains in the production of volatile flavour components of Tokaji Aszú wine was tested. The effect of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter and that of the typical endogenous Candida stellata strain as well as spontaneous fermentation were studied and compared. For the fast comparison of aroma profile, a solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling and a GC-MS separation and identification were used. Thirty of the present compounds were selected to characterise the changes of flavour. Significant differences were found between wines fermented with different yeast strains. Application of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter alone accelerated the fermentation but this caused only little change in the aroma profile and content. Candida stellata contributed weakly to the production of aroma, especially to that of the longer carbon chain ethyl esters. Characteristic compounds of aged wine were detected in bottle aged Tokaji Aszú. The change of aroma profile as a function of bottle storage time was studied. The concentrations of vitispirane, trimethyl dihydronaphtalene, 2-phenylethanol and diethyl succinate increased in the course of ageing time, while those of 3-methyl-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and ethyl dodecanoate decreased.

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The aim of the study was to analyse the flavour profile and general lust of innovative dairy products – kefir, which has increased health-oriented values resulting from an increase in the ratio of whey protein and an enzymatic bioconversion of lactose. Kefir was prepared from a mixture of goat milk and its permeate concentrated with microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes, combined in a ratio of 6:4. The permeate addition increases sweetness and reduces overall flavour of the dairy. The enzymatic conversion of lactose into galactooligosaccharides further increases the sweetness of the dairy mixture, while simultaneously weakening the odours both goatish and processed.

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