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be used for virtually any chemical reaction and are therefore cost efficient to operate. Nevertheless, since two decades or so, continuous-flow chemistry has become more widespread in academic synthetic chemistry groups that recognized the benefits of

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Flow chemistry has emerged as the enabling field of high-throughput, data-driven discovery, and process chemistry, yet solids handling remains its key challenge. Insoluble salt by-products can stop flow, fluctuate reagent concentrations in reactors, and cost unexpected time and materials consumptions. The clogging of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) tubing, stainless steel (SS) tubing, and a silicon microreactor by NaCl during a Pd-catalyzed amination using XPhos ligand was each studied. Our goal of understanding the appropriate reactor design provides in-depth analyses of constriction and mechanical entrapment. Calculations of Stokes number (St)>1 revealed that NaCl particle depositions were independent of the reactor materials. Analyses of the clogging time’s dependence on the residence time (τ) and particle volume fraction (ϕ) discovered commercial tubing to be inadequate for the decoupling of the kinetics. The results prescribe why fabricated microreactors with on-chip analytics, particle formations and dissolutions, and without fluidic connections are solutions to discover and develop ubiquitous reactions that form inorganic salt by-products.

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1. Introduction The expansion of publications, presentations, and lectures on flow chemistry over the past decade has been remarkable. Once a field dominated by chemical engineers, flow techniques are now important

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Further Flow Chemistry Publications “ Metal-free oxidative fluorination of phenols with [18 F]fluoride ” Z. Gao , Y. H. Lim , M. Tredwell , L. Li , S. Verhoog , M. Hopkinson , W. Kaluza , T. L. Collier , J

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Further Flow Chemistry Publications “ Miniaturizing biocatalysis: Enzyme-catalyzed reactions in an aqueous/organic segmented flow capillary microreactor ” R. Karande , A. Schmid , K. Buehler Advanced Synthesis

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Further Flow Chemistry Publications: 2013 “ Heating under high-frequency inductive conditions: application to the continuous synthesis of the neurolepticum olanzapine (Zyprexa) ” J. Hartwig , S. Ceylan , L. Kupracz

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Further Flow Chemistry Publications “ Polydopamine microfluidic system toward a two-dimensional, gravity-driven mixing device ” I. You , S. M. Kang , S. Lee , Y. O. Cho , J. B. Kim , S. B. Lee , Y. S. Nam ,* H

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Further Flow Chemistry Publications “Peptide fragment coupling using a continuous-flow photochemical rearrangement of nitrones” Y. Zhang , M. L. Blackman , A. B. Leduc , T. F. Jamison * Angewandte Chemie

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Further Flow Chemistry Publications “ Continuous Multistep Microfluidic Assisted Assembly of Fluorescent, Plasmonic, and Magnetic Nanostructures ” N. Hassan , V. Cabuil , A. Abou-Hassan * Angewandte Chemie

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Further Flow Chemistry Publications “ Lithiation of 1,2-dichloroethene in flow microreactors: Versatile synthesis of alkenes and alkynes by precise residence-time control ” A. Nagaki, C. Matsuo, S. Kim, K. Saito, A

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