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191 194 1971 Folk Music of Hungary , 2nd English ed., Lajos VARGYAS, Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences Folk Music of Hungary

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In the Czechoslovakia of the 1950s, traditional folk music was officially presented as the most important resource of national musical identity. Folk- or folk-inspired music was ubiquitous. Although this intensity had subsided in the following decades, the role of folk music as a symbol of national identity remained strong until the end of the communist rule in 1989. While the ideology of nationalism used folk music as its tool, it also influenced the way this music was collected, researched, and presented. The article presents examples from two closely related areas to document this phenomenon: folk music research and folk music revival. A closer look reveals how the idea of state-promoted nationalism influenced the ways researchers presented their findings, how they filtered out material that was deemed unsuitable for publication, and how traditional music was revived on stage or in media by folk music and dance ensembles. Critical analysis of research materials and audiovisual documents from the 1950s and 1960s will show how censorship accompanied a folk song from its collection in the field, through publication, to a stylized production on stage or in film.

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Recollecting his youth, which was shared with György Ligeti, in 1993 György Kurtág recounted his compulsory folk music studies at the Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest as follows: Hungarian folk music was [a] compulsory [subject] for all students at

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Hungarian prehistory demonstrates a peculiar duality of language and music: the language belongs to the Finno-Ugric family, while several pre-Conquest strata of Hungarian folk music are connected to Turkic groups. Intrigued by this phenomenon

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KODÁLY, Zoltán 1943 Népzenénk [Our folk music]. Visszatekintés [Retrospection] III. 373-387 Népzenénk [Our folk music]. 373

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The sound archives of the Institute for Musicolgy of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences disposes over a large and invaluable audio folk music collection. It means some ten thousands hours of authentic folk music recordings. To afford the wider public an insight into this collection a series of record - title Hungarian Folk Music Anthology - started in 1985. The order of sets follows the Hungarian folk music dialect-areas, as Béla Bartók established then, each containing about 4 hours sound material illustrating the area with the characteristical song types. So far 4×5 records and 2 sets of cassettes have appeared: the folk-dance survey, the songs from North Hungary, Transdanubia, the Great Hungarian Plain, and East (i.e. Transylvania) in two parts. The closing part of the Antology is a set of 4 CS-s containing the folk music of Hungarians living in Moldavia and Bukovina. The demonstation will intraduce the history and the musical world of those.

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Zoltán Kodály became seriously interested in Transylvanian folk music when he had learnt about the results of Béla Bartók's collecting fieldworks in Székelyföld. The wealth of old-style tunes and classical ballads, and – above all – the recognition of the importance of pentatony inspired Kodály to take part personally in the exploration of Székely folk music. Székely musical folklore obviously intrigued him both as an ethnographer and as a composer. He collected nearly 600 tunes in 15 Székely localities in the Gyergyó Basin, the valley of the Kászon stream, and Bukovina. He arranged 66 of these melodies within such compositions as e.g. the Dances of Marosszék, the musical play The Spinning Room, Hungarian Folk Music (57 ballads and folk songs for voice and piano), Székely Lament for mixed voices, Bicinia Hungarica, Kádár Kata and Molnár Anna (both with chamber orchestra accompaniment), and Pentatonic Music. Apart from his own collection, he also used those of some of his contemporaries. The paper discusses the specificities of Kodály's techniques of arrangement. His inspiring advice for younger folklorists had an essential role in triggering the in-depth investigation of Central Transylvanian folk music.

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The article gives a picture of the folk music life in Turkey. Turkish folk music has undergone drastic change because of the social and cultural development. The country is entering a specially rapid process of industrialization. The expansion of technology, industry and consumer economy enhanced globalization in Turkey. The worldwide uniformity is due to the interaction of economic and cultural phenomena. The source of folk music has not been extinguished, rather people have formed a new kind of music depending on the changing cultural, social and economic conditions.

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Béla Bartók's collection of Hungarian instrumental folk music is known only for the Hungarian Bartók scholars and ethnomusicologists although Bartók's permanent interest in folk musical instruments, and instruments in general, manifesting itself in essays and compositions has always been evident. The term Bartók's instrumental collection implies the Hungarian instrumental folk music material that emerged as the outcome of his own collecting work and explicitly melodies performed on instruments. This report gives a survey of Bartók's work in the field by means of some randomly chosen phenomena.

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Bartók, Béla: “Why and How Do We Collect Folk Music?” in Béla Bartók, Essays , ed. Benjamin Suchoff (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1976 [1936]), 9–24. Bartók B

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