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Excellence Program Of The Ministry Of Human Capacities . References Cited Abello , James - Broadwell , Peter - Tangherlini Timothy R. 2012 Computational Folkloristics . Communications of the AC 55 ( 7 ): 60 – 70 . Anttonen

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The primary – and for the longest time only – way of acquiring ethnographic-folkloristic knowledge has been the textual recording, organization, and publication of data derived from living, oral tradition. 1 Despite this, folkloristics does not

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Abstract

The author of the article wishes to compare Hungarian textual and musical folkloristics at the turn of the 20th century with regard to changes in fieldwork methodologies. Hungarian folklore studies in the 19th century preferred text-oriented recording of performances, while by the first half of the 20th century the need for a performance-centered study of folklore with the help of audio recording emerged. Owing to a fundamental change in the method of folklorecollection, Hungarian folklorists studying folk music and folk dance by the middle of the 20th century applied the method of participant observation. In the meantime extensive collection gave way to intensive collection focusing on the repertoire of a given local community or of an outstanding performer. In this process Béla Vikár had a distinguished role as he was the first one to use phonograph in collecting folk poetry and folk music in Hungary, besides which, with the help of stenography, he has a remarkable manuscript legacy of folktales and folk customs as well. The approach and objectives of Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály differed from those of Vikár's, since for them quantitative considerations were still important, while Vikár's approach borrowed elements from social sciences as well. The break-through in this respect was marked with the oeuvre of László Lajtha, a disciple of Bartók, who dealt with vocal and instrumental folk music alike. During five decades Lajtha as a collector shifted paradigms a number of times and on the peak of his folklorist oeuvre he published monographs on the vocal and instrumental musical repertoire of bands and villages. His studies inspired György Martin, dance folklorist as well as the revival folk dance movement in the 1970s. The performer-centred study of narration that Gyula Ortutay elaborated on at the beginning of the 1940s proved to be successful primarily in the study of prose epic genres and it unreflexively followed the method of folk musicologists.

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attire, which came to symbolize the national costume. The theoretical principles of the formation of Ukrainian national costume as a phenomenon of folk culture were formulated in the 19th and 20th centuries by ethnologists, folklorists, anthropologists

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–2020. Kїiv : NAN Ukraїni, Institut Mistectvoznavstva, fol'kloristiki ta etnologії іm. M.T.Ril's'kogo . ISBN 978-966-02-7784-7 (series) . Between 2016 and 2021, the Institute of Art Studies, Folkloristics, and Ethnology of the National Academy of Sciences

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The central effect of globalization is cultural convergence. The notion of “cultural creolization,” amplified from creole linguistics, offers a model wherewith to understand the cultural convergences of Europe and the rest of the postmodern world. Creolization, like diaspora, is a word with a history that is relevant to cultural analysis. Despite the claims of other terms like acculturation, transculturation, mixing, and hybridization, I advocate creolization to remind ethnologists of the decisive power differences that are always present when cultures converge. Creolization also denotes the creation of something discontinuous and new, which could not have been predicted from its origins. I sketch the relation of this concept to history, sociolinguistics, communication theory, anthropology, and religious studies, in the light of definitive linguistic research.

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The article is based on the online database “Estonian Droodles” (available at http://www.folklore.ee/Droodles , containing 7,200 droodles collected from 1963 up to the present), which includes a number of longer visual narrative riddles (about 430 text variants, 79 types, i.e. different droodles). The question component of the so-called ‘narrative droodles’, or ‘droodle tales’, is a verbally transmitted tale visualised by means of a pictorial image. The performer of a droodle sketches the image during narration and the story ends with a punch line question.Among narrative droodles there are variants built on a specific scene and plot, which may even resemble a miniature fairy tale. The extremely condensed plot centres on only one or two characters. For the purpose of distancing from reality, a princess, king, prince, witch, Little Red Riding Hood, etc. may be chosen as protagonists; the more popular characters are represented as the following character pairs — girl/boy, brother/sister, woman/man, grandmother/grandfather. The narrative droodles are not comparable to the majority of fairy tales in length, but the fast pace of modern life seems to favour the use of such illustrated narrative riddles. An analysis of the structural composition and function of narrative droodles of this type reveals the shared common features with the structure and function of fairy tales.

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Humour is a cultural phenomenon situated at the juncture of societal changes, being most actively present at the spot where the sharpest transitions in value systems take place. Both universally and in the present context of the expanding European Union, it has functioned as an indicator of conflict, transformation and/or assimilation. Now is the perfect time to analyse post-socialist jokelore in Eastern and Central Europe and to compare the results to the jokes of the well-established democracies of Western Europe. Describing the amount and content of political, ethnic and other jokes, their dynamics through the last decade, and viewing the results in a historical perspective will throw light on the issues of self-identification and self-positioning and also complement the best-known theories of ethnic humour with regard to choice of targets, the asymmetricality of joking relationships, etc. The article will propose a model for a post-socialist humour research project, pointing to areas that need further research, and present some preliminary research findings. In the next step of the research project we will be engaging humour scholars from other post-socialist countries to share ideas and expertise, forming a generalised picture of the features of post-socialist humour.

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The article demonstrates that similar actions and lifestyles of two individuals living in two villages of Yakutia (in Northeastern Siberia) evoke different attitudes in their own communities in accordance with the dissimilar social structures and communicative systems of the villages. The article focuses on the different ways the register of humour is activated and on the dissimilar assessments of extraordinary patterns of behaviour resulting in social embarrassment within the two communities. The case studies show that one of the protagonists of the paper, Konoohoi, is referred to as a funny guy about whom funny stories are circulated, whereas Lögöntöi is much more regarded as a strange person by his fellow villagers. The difference between the integrity of the communities (providing evaluative social talks of different characters in the settlements concerned) results in two different ways of dealing with the social embarrassment caused by extraordinary behaviours. In one of the villages the funny but disparaging anecdotes about such behaviour are embedded in the system of kin-group characterisation, whereas in the other one it would be regarded as more offensive (as a personal attack), since in this setting it is generally not allowed to expose shortcomings in public.

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