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Abstract  

Dilute aqueous solution of cresol red has been evaluated spectrophotometrically as possible gamma rays dosimeter. A 0.10 mM solution of cresol red was irradiated by gamma rays using a cobalt-60 radiation source. The absorbance spectra of the unirradiated and irradiated solutions were recorded using double beam scanning spectrophotometer. The absorbance of the solution before and after irradiation was measured at 434 nm (λmax) as well as at other wavelengths (415, 448 and 470 nm). Various parameters, such as Absorbance (A), ΔA, %A, -log A and log Ao/Ai were plotted against radiation dose, in order to check the response of cresol red solution and its possible use as chemical dosimeter. The response plots of A, ΔA, and %A versus absorbed dose showed that the solution can be used as a radiation dosimeter in a dose range up to 0.82 kGy. Using response plots of -log A and log Ao/Ai, the useful dose range can be extended up to 1.65 kGy; which are useful dose ranges for food irradiation applications. Stability studies of cresol red solution at different light and temperature conditions for pre- and post-irradiated storage of the dosimetric solutions suggested that aqueous solution of cresol red is highly stable in dark, under fluorescence light and at room temperature up to 150 days

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: Sommers, C.H. & Fan, X. (Eds): Food irradiation research and technology . Blackwell Publishing and the Institute of Food Technologists, Ames, pp. 169–181. Fan X

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Abstract  

Aqueous solution of crystal violet has been evaluated spectrophotometrically as a gamma-ray chemical dosimeter. The response of the chemical dosimetric system has also been investigated under different environmental conditions, such as light and temperature. In the present study the response has been measured at two wavelengths; 588 nm (λmax of the irradiated solution) and 500 nm. The response of the crystal violet dosimeter was linear in the dose range of 50–550 Gy at pH 5.6 when absorption measurements were made at 588 and 500 nm. The response of the crystal violet dosimeter during post-irradiation storage at room temperature in dark showed slight decrease in absorbance at 588 and 510 nm but the response was almost stable at 460 nm. For higher doses, the change in the response was greater as compared to the low doses. Post-irradiation stability during diffused sunlight showed significant decrease in the response for higher dose at 588 and 510 nm and slower decrease in the response for lower dose at the above mentioned wavelengths. However the response was almost stable up to 97 days at 460 nm for higher and lower doses. At 4 °C, the decrease in the absorbance was slower at 588 and 510 nm while the response was almost constant at 460 nm. At higher temperatures, such as 40 °C, the decrease in the absorbance was greater at 588 and 510 nm while at 460 nm the absorbance was almost constant for about 3 months.

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Abstract  

Half a century of focused nuclear education in Brazil has resulted in the expansion of applications of nuclear technique in many fields, such as power generation nuclear power plants, environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics and treatments, food irradiation, new materials development using irradiation, archaeological dating, hydrological studies, and so on. Nuclear research is blooming and evolving in Brazil. In the last three years, two master’s degrees and one doctorate have been approved by the Ministry of Education. The scientific capacity building has been enlarging and improving the reservoir of qualified personnel who Brazil expects to operate the current infrastructure and other facilities to be settled in the near future. Only graduate programs allocated by CAPES (Ministry of Education) and CNPq (Ministry of Science & Technology) in the Nuclear Engineering Area (Engenharia II) are considered in this paper. In Brazil, there are also Physics and hybrid graduate programs in what DSc degrees are pursued using nuclear and nuclear-related techniques; CAPES and CNPq do not allocate them in the nuclear engineering area, following their own criteria, since those programs have their own peers, budget and evaluation area.

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Abstract  

The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) completed the High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO) in 1995 and the radioisotope production facilities(RIPF) in 1997. Many devices and handling tools were developed and applied for the production of radioisotopes. Emphasis on RI production plan was placed on the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, the development of new radiation sources for industrial use and the steady production of selected radioisotopes. The selected items are 166Ho-based pharmaceuticals, fission 99Mo/99mTc generators, and products of 131I and 192Ir and 60Co sources for industrial use. Now KAERI regularly produces radioisotopes (131I, 99mTc, 166Ho, 192Ir, 60Co etc.) and labeled compounds including 99mTc cold kits. Newly developed therapeutic agents are a 166Ho-chitosan complex for liver cancer treatment, a 166Ho patch for skin cancer treatment and devices such as the stent and balloon for the prevention against restenosis of the coronary artery. Feasibility studies on the installation of a 99mTc generator loading facility and on 60Co production for food irradiation were finished. The 192Ir sealed source assembly for NDT has been supplied to domestic users since May 2001. The fission moly process, separation process of non-sealed sources (125I, 33P, 89Sr, 153Sm, 188Re) and fabrication process of sealed sources (169Yb, 75Se) are also under development. For the quality assurance of our final products, we obtained ISO certification in 2000. We are carrying out a feasibility study on a new research reactor for the stable supply of radioisotopes in Korea.

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Farkas, J., Kiss, I.. & Andrássy, É. (1966): The after-ripening of red pepper, Capsicum annuum , as affected by ionizing radiation. -in: Food irradiation . IAEA, Vienna. pp. 601–607. Andrássy

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. F ARKAS , J. & M OHÁCSI -F ARKAS , CS. ( 2011 ): History and future of food irradiation . Trends Food Sci. Tech ., 22 , 121 – 126 . I AEA ( 2000 ): Irradiation of fish, shellfish and frog-legs — a

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. 1990 90 37 41 WHO (1988): Food irradiation: A technique for preserving and improving the safety of food . Geneva. pp. 1

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treatment among them is processing with ionizing radiation [ 6 ]. The ionizing radiations originated from gamma rays are produced by radioactive substances (radioisotopes). The approved sources of gamma rays for food irradiation are the radionuclides cobalt

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