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Central to translation is cultural anxiety and ambivalence about foreign otherness, which is essentially reified in cultural politics underlying translation. The ubiquity of ideology may be exaggerated or overstated, but it is manifest in a tendency to be seen as primarily bound up with language and art, and the needs of translation are inseparable from the political or cultural concerns in the target language system. The cultural politics of difference has a lot to do with truth-telling, sincerity, intelligibility and empathy. Effective translation depends not only upon a reasonable understanding of the content of the message that has been translated, but also on an ability, on the part of the target reader, to relate that message to the relevant cultural situation by developing a necessary knowledge of foreign otherness in its cultural political context. The artifice or artificiality of sameness entails turning away and reduction, yet cultural impositions are understandably considered as intrusive, and debates on literature and translation, often ideologically charged, tend to center around what foreign otherness is capable of doing or undoing. In defiance of the prevailing political conditions, translation may embrace and introduce foreign political and ethical values.

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The creation of comic books has traditionally been the domain of men. It is, however, a comic book story about a young girl written in French by a Polish woman author that seems to be one of the more significant comic book titles describing the Poland of the second half of the twentieth century. Written by Marzena Sowa and illustrated by Sylvain Savoia, Marzi is an autobiographical account of life in the socialist reality of the 1980s recounted from the perspective of a young Polish girl, carefully observing and analyzing the world of adults. Originally created in French in 2004, the comic book in focus has been translated into several languages, including English, Italian, Spanish, German, Chinese, Korean as well as the author’s native language, Polish. The paper concentrates on the notions of translation, foreignization and localization. The notion of translation is crucial to understanding Marzi and may be regarded as a keyword that sheds more light on the very process of creating the book. The strategy of foreignization is observable both in the French and the American editions with regard to the depiction of Polish cultural specificity. Finally, the French, Polish and American editions, which are the focus of the present paper, may be used to illustrate the concept of localization, applied to the sphere of comics translation by Federico Zanettin (2008).

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1 As Mary Beard has demonstrated, the term ‘foreign’ in relation to Roman religion does not have an ethnic connotation but is rather a social construction. While there is no doubt that the cults considered here had

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Introduction Foreign language teaching has been highly affected by psychology. Many studies have been performed to find out the relationship between language learning and affective variables. Such affective variables

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Brynen, R. (2000): A Very Political Economy: Peacebuilding and Foreign Aid in the West Bank and Gaza . Washington: United States Institute of Peace. Brynen R

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Kronke, H.-Nacimento, P.-Otto, D. (2009): Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards: A Global Commentary on the New York Convention . Kluwer Law International, 365. Otto D

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Introduction In this study, we endeavor to map the foreign language learning attitude of higher education (HE) students as well as the social background of these student groups. Good command of foreign languages is of key

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1 Introduction Motives of foreign direct investment (FDI) may be unique for each investing firm. However, from the policy point of view, a general pattern of determinants is crucial. It allows governments to design an efficient investment support

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Spillovers from foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern Europe

An index for measuring a country’s potential to benefit from technology spillovers

Society and Economy
Authors:
Balázs Szent-Iványi
and
Gábor Vigvári

Aitken, B. J., Harrison, A. E. (1999): Do Domestic Firms Benefit from Direct Foreign Investment? Evidence from Venezuela. The American Economic Review 89(3): 605

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. References Alesina , A. – Dollar , D. ( 2000 ): Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why? Journal of Economic Growth , 5 ( 1 ): 33 – 63

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