The paper puts forward a new interpretation of the problematic word btol that is sparsely attested in Old Tibetan sources. The philological analysis is supported by a lexicological survey of potential cognates; taken together these allow us to sketch the word family of btol, and thus to better understand the underlying semantics of the word. It is argued that the term denoted a rite within a funeral ceremony; to be speciﬁc, the rite of exposure of the deceased’s body before it was interred. In order to contextualise the rite and to assess its cultural signiﬁcance, this paper also discusses certain funeral customs of later periods.
participating in the supra-regional exchange, together with the metal inventory, gradually adopted other elements of the “foreign” tradition – in this case the cremation funeralrite.
It is generally assumed that it spread from
The unburied, who had not received the prescribed funeralrites, and other unfortunates who had died prematurely or had come to violent ends were doomed to linger along the border between the living and the dead
, funeralrites, social status and ethnocultural attribution) . Stratum Plus 4 ( 2014 ) 299 – 336 .
Kazanski—Mastykova 2000 M. Kazanski – A. Mastykova : Les Alains sur le Dniepr à l’époque des Grandes Migrations: le témoignage de Marcien et les
the fourth of his Symphony No. 4. 36 Mahler became acquainted, through the Protestant funeralrites for the conductor and pianist Hans von Bülow, with Friedrich Klopstock’s 1759 ode Die Auferstehung in 1894. He used the first two stanzas of this
visit the world of the living on certain days, even when they had died a natural death and received completely proper funeralrites. On some of those days the gate of the underworld was opened up for all of the dead and the community would include them
rarely been found in this part of Ménfőcsanak cemetery. Iron umbo was not found. The presence of shields made primarily of organic material could only be inferred from a few minor iron parts in the funeralrite. Edge ironing was found in warrior grave