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various alterations in both morphology and gene expression. Detachment of the cells from the culture surface and formation of spheroids could be found. This is in accordance with the results of Kopp et al. ( 16 ), who observed incipient cell detachment of

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The complex interplay between Mycoplasma synoviae and chicken chondrocytes (CCH), which come into direct contact during infectious synovitis, has been examined at the level of gene expression. Our previous studies demonstrated a significant influence of M. synoviae on the level of CCH gene expression. Here, we show for the first time that in vitro co-cultivation of M. synoviae and CCH also induces upregulation of gene expression in this mycoplasma. We observed significantly increased expression of genes important for M. synoviae pathogenicity, including cysteine protease cysP, neuraminidase nanH, haemagglutinin vlhA, and the putative nuclease MS53_0284. Moreover, the pattern of gene expression was dependent on the infection environment. In CCH, significant changes in the expression of genes encoding catabolic enzymes of the cartilage extracellular matrix (cathepsins B, K and L, aggrecanase ADAM10, and matrix metalloproteinase MMP2) were demonstrated. Infection of CCH with M. synoviae also elevated the expression of the gene encoding peptidyl arginine deiminase, type III (PADI3), which is responsible for the post-translational citrullination of proteins.

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The aim of this study was to determine the steady-state expression of 13 selected housekeeping genes in the myometrium of cyclic and pregnant cows. Cells taken from bovine myometrium on days 1–5, 6–10, 11–16 and 17–20 of the oestrous cycle and in weeks 3–5, 6–8 and 9–12 of pregnancy were used. Reverse transcribed RNA was amplified in real-time PCR using designed primers. Reaction efficiency was determined with the Linreg programme. The geNorm and NormFinder programmes were used to select the best housekeeping genes. They calculate the expression stability factor for each used housekeeping gene with the smallest value for most stably expressed genes. According to geNorm, the most stable housekeeping genes in the myometrium were C2orf29, TPB and TUBB2B, while the least stably expressed genes were 18S RNA, HPRT1 and GAPDH. NormFinder identified the best genes in the myometrium as C2orf29, MRPL12 and TBP, while the worst genes were 18S RNA, B2M and SF3A1. Differences in stability factors between the two programmes may also indicate that the physiological status of the female, e.g. pregnancy, affects the stability of expression of housekeeping genes. The different expression stability of housekeeping genes did not affect progesterone receptor expression but it could be important if small differences in gene expression were measured between studies.

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Chronic stress is a risk factor for the development of numerous psychopathological conditions in humans including depression. Changes in gene expression of tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), β1-, β2- and β3-adrenoceptors in right and left rat atria upon chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) were investigated. CMS decreased TH and DBH gene expression levels both in right and left atria and increased PNMT mRNA in left atria. No changes in mRNA levels of β1- and β2-adrenoceptors were recorded, whereas β3-adrenoreceptor mRNA level was significantly elevated in right atria of CMS rats. At the same time, CMS produced a significant increase of β1- and β2-adrenoreceptor mRNA levels in left atria, but did not affect β3-adrenoceptor mRNA level.The results presented here suggest that stress-induced depression expressed differential effects on catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes and β-adrenoceptors at molecular level in right and left atria of adult rat males. Elevated gene expression of PNMT in left atria of rats exposed to CMS can lead to altered physiological esponse and may play a role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular function.

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Physiology International
Authors: L.J. Reynolds, O.A. Vsevolozhskaya, B.B. Rice, N.R. Chavan, A.J. Dugan, H.F. Maddox, J.D. Preston, L.B. DeHoff, J.M. O'Brien, and K.J. Pearson

pregnancy on markers of gene expression related to adipogenesis and glucose tolerance in male neonates. The purpose of this study was to examine if physical activity levels during pregnancy were significantly correlated to genes related to adipogenesis and

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Several plant-originated natural compounds were shown to exhibit chemopreventive effect in carcinogenesis. In our studies, we have investigated CoD™ extract, a complex plant extract made from several tropical plants with possible cancer preventive effect in animal experiments. c-myc, p53 and Ha-ras gene expressions were investigated 24, 48 and 72 h after CoD™ extract and dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DMBA) treatment in CBA/Ca(H-2 K ) mice. CoD™ extract administered together with DMBA diminished c-myc, p53 and Ha-ras gene expressions both in the 24 and 48 h experiments, but not in the 72 h experiments. Further in vivo and human studies are needed to clarify the possible role of CoD™ extract in the prevention of tumour formation after carcinogenic exposures.

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and molecular biology an application for the gene expression profile of regional ischemic myocardium. Circ. J. 67 , 788–792. Minamino T. Canine DNA array as a potential tool for

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H. Irene M. Slavik 2009 Stress-induced adaptive tolerance response and virulence gene expression in Campylobacter jejuni

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Fatemeh Alipour, Mehdi Jalali, Mohammad Reza Nikravesh, Alireza Fazel, Mojtaba Sankian, and Elnaz Khordad

. ( 2013 ) Effects of vitamin-E treatment on CatSper genes expression and sperm quality in the testis of the aging mouse . Iran J. Reprod. Med. 11 , 989 – 998 . 21. Mohammadi

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