Routinely collected generalpractice data: goldmines for research? A report of the European Federation for Medical Informatics Primary Care Informatics Working Group (EFMI PCIWG) from MIE2006, Maastricht, The
Public health and
social welfare subsystems are principally linked together by mutual interest in
the basic care of elderly people. General practitioner (GP) services are parts
of the social signaling system that promotes revealing unprovided needs. On the
other hand, taking indigents into social care would make considerably easier
the work of GPs. As a consequence, GPs' signaling should be a general practice
everywhere. But social specialists experience the contrary. In order to explain
the difference between the unity of interest in principle, and weak
collaboration in reality, a theoretical model was elaborated and tested
empirically. We have found that social service providers' preferences are not
evident for GPs; therefore their willingness to signal depends on their
opportunity of obtaining information.
The issue of settlement and the calculation of the thickness of the deformation zone are addressed in this paper. A short overview is given concerning the thickness of the deformation zone values used in general practice; the available soil models are also briefly introduced. A particular problem is used to compare the results of obtained depth of the influence zone calculated by available formulae and estimated by finite element analyses with different soil models, such as the “hardening soil”, the “Cam-Clay” and the “hardening soil with small strain” models. The deformation zone of a soft clay layer beneath a 10 m-high and 80 m-wide embankment is evaluated, and the results are compared. Special attention is given to the soil models and their capabilities and drawbacks for calculation of deformations due to large embankments.
Variation in empirical data has been a perseverant problem for theoretical linguistics, especially syntax. Data inconsistencies among authors allegedly analyzing the same phenomenon are ubiquitous in the syntactic literature (e.g., literature on focus-raising in Hungarian; É. Kiss 1987 vs. Lipták 1998), and partly result from the highly informal methodology of data collection. However, even if adequate controls are used to exclude potential biases, variation might remain. The general practice in syntactic research has been to ignore these „microvariations”-mainly in the lack of any systematic empirical method to detect them. The present paper shows that this practice leads to serious theoretical problems and proposes a new empirical method, cluster analysis, to discover, explore and systematize these variations. It also illustrates how this richer empirical basis gives rise to a more fine-grained theoretical analysis.
The study presents the characteristics of “trust economy” based on the findings of interviews conducted among countryside small entrepreneurs. There are three aspects of the issue of trust discussed: The use of written records in entrepreneurial contracts, the interdepedency of networks and trust, and the attitude of small entrepreneurs towards banks. Even the written contract does not provide guarantee for the case when the business partner should violate a contract in an economic situation considered as uncertain. They do not trust the administration of justice and/or regard it as low efficiency organizations. The entrepreneurs who know each other very well and belong to the same network are the members of social relations defined by Coleman as closed social structure. Inside that entrepreneurial circle where members are within social sight, giving on credit and money lending is general practice and the agreement on that is often only verbal. The attitude of this group towards banks is negative. The exploitation of social organizations for different from there original function can turn out to be a success or can be a failure. The example for the success is the business based on the trust relationship within the church. On the other hand the effort to exploitation is a failure when in an organization there are too many members with the primary ambition of exploitation. This will not make possible the spontaneous, “organic” way of production of trust.
Despite promising findings indicating the therapeutic potential of psychedelic experience across a variety of domains, the mechanisms and factors affecting its efficacy remain unclear. The present paper explores this by focusing on two psychedelic states which have been suggested as therapeutically significant in past literature: ego-dissolution and connectedness. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of ego-dissolution and connectedness on the therapeutic effects of the psychedelic experience.
The investigation was carried out as a mixed methods systematic review, with the data from four databases analysed thematically and results presented through narrative synthesis.
The analysis and synthesis of findings from 15 unique studies (n = 2,182) indicated that both ego-dissolution and connectedness are associated with a higher chance of improvement following a psychedelic experience. However, there seem to be differences in the way the two experiences affect individuals psychologically. Ego-dissolution appears to trigger psychological change but does not typically exceed the psychedelic experience in its duration, while connectedness can be more sustained and is associated with several positive, potentially therapeutic feelings.
Moreover, the findings of this review have implications for further theory-building about the mechanisms which enable therapeutic effects in psychedelic experience. This in turn might lead to improved models for psychedelic therapy practice. Emphasis on ego-dissolution during the preparation phase and on connectedness during integration is one suggestion presented here, alongside overarching implications for the mental health debate and general practice.