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The aim of this study was to compare efficiency of RP-HPLC (Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) and LOC (Lab-on-Chip) methods for wheat gluten protein quantification regarding clustering of wheat cultivars according to the genetic similarity (HMW-GS combinations), as well as to explore relations of these two methods to wheat quality parameters. For that purpose, wheat quality parameters (protein content, falling number, wet gluten content, gluten index, Farinograph, Extensograph, and Amylograph), as well as amounts of gliadin and glutenin fractions by RP-HPLC and LOC methods were determined in two different sets of wheat cultivars (Croatian and Serbian). The percentages of gluten proteins and the values of quality parameters were used to characterize the samples by principal component analysis (PCA). Gluten protein quantification performed by method based on the protein fraction separation by molecular weights (LOC) was better for grouping of genetically similar wheat cultivars than quantification of proteins separated by their different solubility in specified solvent gradient (RP-HPLC). LOC method showed higher potential in wheat quality prediction.

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Bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is an economically and nutritionally important cereal crop in the Mediterranean region. Characterization of wheat germplasm by means of DNA fingerprinting techniques provides a tool to assess genetic diversity and to identify varieties. In this study, six Tunisian bread wheat cultivars were characterized by AFLP and SSR markers. Five AFLP primer pairs showed clear different patterns and seems to be the most suitable for analysis of the bread wheat varieties. Three SSR primers were polymorphic with more than two alleles. The pairwise genetic similarities (GS) based on these molecular markers were calculated and used to construct a dendrogram that allowed the discrimination of the six cultivars. The GS among the six varieties ranged from 0.79 to 0.36. The six varieties used in this work clustered into four groups using either AFLP or SSR markers. A high GS was found between Tebecca and Vaga Varieties which have a similar pedigree.

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Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Tamás Bereczkei, Petra Gyuris, Panna Köves, and László Bernáth

465 Dunbar, R. I. M. (1989) Genetic similarity theory needs more development. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12 , 520-521. Genetic similarity theory needs more

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Pejic, I., Ajmone-Marsan, P., Morgante, M., Kozumplick, V., Castiglioni, P., Taramino, G., Motto, M. (1998): Comparative analysis of genetic similarity among maize inbred lines detected by RFLPs, RAPDs, SSRs, and AFLPs. Theor. Appl. Genet. , 97 , 1248

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Anna Szilasi, Lilla Dénes, Eszter Krikó, Caoimhe Murray, Míra Mándoki, and Gyula Balka

Irish sequences were grouped into a monophyletic group. The strain in clade B seems to be related (genetic similarity 93.7%) to a strain originating from Joinville, Brazil, 2017 (acc. number: KY629414 ). The subgroups within clade A are supported by

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Genetic diversity of 48 Pakistani wheat varieties and 12 landraces was assessed, loss of genetic diversity in bread wheat during the change from traditional landraces (LVs) to modern breeding varieties was examined, and recent trends of national wheat breeding programmes were identified. A total of 29 SSR markers, representing at least one marker from each chromosome of wheat, were used to analyze the genetic diversity. A total of 80 alleles were generated by the 29 loci with an average of 2.76 alleles per marker. A significant loss of genetic diversity was observed from LVs to elite cultivated varieties. Average genetic similarity between landraces was 61% while varieties released after 1990 showed 73% similarity. Range of genetic distance observed between all possible pairs was from 1.41 to 4.90. It was also observed that most of the varieties released from one source showed comparatively lower diversity indicating the utilization of common elite breeding material or interbreeding of released varieties.

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A large number of sorghum landraces possessing superior grain quality but poor yield potential are cultivated in South Africa, where sorghum is of regional importance as a main staple food. Agronomic traits of landraces and newly developed breeding lines from Southern Africa were evaluated under low-input and optimal conditions. Molecular evaluation was carried out on the basis of AFLPs and SSRs. The accessions clustered into two groups. Mean genetic similarity was estimated at 0.85 using AFLPs and 0.31 using SSRs. Genetic diversity was calculated at H=0.136 and DI=0.597 for landraces and H=0.140 and DI=0.580 for breeding varieties. The most promising accessions concerning yielding ability and grain quality were selected and introduced to a breeding programme.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Snežana Tomanović, Željko Radulović, Toshiyuki Masuzawa, Marija Milutinović, and Ljubiša Stanisavljević

Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains from different geographical regions are characterised by diverse potential infectivity for humans and domesticated animals. We investigated the potential pathogenicity of A. phagocytophilum strains in Ixodes ricinus ticks from 11 geographically different localities in Serbia. Sequences obtained in this study showed a high variability of p44 paralogues. Some of them, however, formed groups with similarities greater than 86% (‘similarity groups’). Previous studies showed that ‘similarity groups’ were nearly always country specific. Our results correlated with this observation, and we also observed significant clustering of paralogues according to vector and reservoir origin of A. phagocytophilum strains. According to the high genetic similarity of sequences isolated from ticks collected in four localities, namely Avala, Batrovci, Hajdučka česma and Ljubovija, with paralogues with proven pathogenicity isolated from human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) patients and A. phagocytophilum infected sheep, we could assume that strains with potential infectivity for humans and domestic animals were present in Serbia.

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Abstract

Aim

The present-day genetic architecture of a species bears much significance to its closely related species. In recent availability of whole genome sequence data for closely related species, it is possible to detect genetic similarities/differences in specific lineages and infer the role of evolutionary forces in bringing such similarities/differences. In this respect, NAT2 gene, responsible for drug metabolism, is conserved across a few taxa and, thus, comparative genomic studies could be useful for better pharmacogenetic realization.

Methods

DNA sequences of human NAT2 gene were retrieved from NCBI and characterized. Comparative and evolutionary analyses were performed with sequences from four mammalian taxa and one avian taxon with different statistical algorithms.

Results

The observed genetic architecture of NAT2 gene was different across the taxa. Phylogenetic inferences revealed that human and chimpanzee are diverged recently and fowl was found to be diverged from rest of the taxa significantly. Also, gene length, microsatellites, Ka/Ks, secondary structure, and distribution of CpG islands were observed across taxa.

Conclusions

The detail architecture of NAT2 gene and its evolutionary history in different taxa show relationships with other taxa. Future population-based study in NAT2 would unravel the correlation between nucleotide changes and differential ability of drug metabolization in humans.

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Simple sequence repeat (SSR) DNA markers were used to characterize the genetic diversity in 70 accessions of Aegilops crassa from Iran as well as to determine relationships among these accessions with 9 accessions of Aegilops tauschii (subsp. tauschii and strangulata ) and 5 Triticum aestivum landraces. All twenty SSR primer pairs were polymorphic and identified a total number of 149 alleles corresponding to an average of 7.5 alleles per locus. The highest and lowest PIC values were obtained in subsp. strangulata and Ae. crassa accessions, respectively. Data obtained were used to estimate genetic similarity using the Dice coefficient, and dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA method. The dendrogram separated the 84 accessions into two main groups. All species grouped according to their genomes. A good level of genetic diversity was observed in the accessions of Ae. crassa , even in geographically close regions, which can be used in the broadening of the genetic base of bread wheat. In addition, T. aestivum and subsp. tauschii were clustered further away from Ae. crassa , confirming probably chromosomal rearrangements in the Dgenome of Ae. crassa during the processes of evolution.

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