The occurrence of damaged grains was studied in 12 barley genotypes in a three-year period. The occurrence of grains with physiological split of lemma and endosperm was generally low. Split of palea and endosperm was mostly affected by the genotype (10%) and it was recorded most frequently in the genotype Heris. Incomplete overlapping of husks was also markedly affected by the genotype (10%) and it occurred most frequently in the genotype Scarlett. Sprouted grains and grains of green color occurred minimally. Black points were affected by year (21%) and genotype (15%). This damage was most frequently reported for the genotypes Camera and Jersey. Surprisingly, the occurrence of grains with apparently moldy husks was markedly affected by the genotype (25%), less substantially by the location (10%) and minimally by year (3%).
In 2013 and 2014, the N, P and K contents of the aboveground phytomass and grain yield of maize hybrids (P 9494, SY Afinity) were examined, as well as the different amounts of N, P and K (kg ha–1) uptake at different nutrient levels (control, N90 + PK, N150 + PK), on calcareous chernozem soil in Eastern Hungary (47°33’ N, 21°27’ E). Our experimental findings proved that as a result of fertilization, the macronutrient (N, P, K) content of the maize hybrids significantly increased in both years in the vegetative and generative plant parts. In the control, the maize hybrids gave high yields (from 10.2 to 11.3 t ha–1 in 2013, and 11.3–14.6 t ha–1 in 2014), and the surpluses due to fertilization varied between 3.2 and 5.0 t ha–1 (2013) and 2.9 and 3.1 t ha–1 (2014). The experimental results proved that fertiliser dosage, genotype and crop year each influenced the NPK utilisation of the fertiliser applied. With increasing doses of fertiliser, NPK utilization deteriorated. In both years, the SY Afinity gave a better N-utilization than the P 9494 hybrid. P- and K-utilization were significantly affected by the year. N-utilization varied from 49.8 to 97.6%, P-utilization varied from 17.1 to 47.7%, and K-utilization from 26.7 to 79.7%; in 2013, and the utilization values were 70.9 to 96.8%, 11.6 to 23.3%, and 30.4 to 62.0% in 2014, respectively.
Mineral composition of grain of some new winter wheat genotypes in Croatia was studied. The following genotypes were selected: Lara, Lenta Kruna Fiesta, AG-45 and Perla which were taken from macrotrials during two vegetation periods of 1997/98 and 1998/99 at two locations in Donji Miholjac and Kutjevo. N-concentration was determined by the micro-Kjeldahl method, P spectrophotometrically and concentration of K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn by the AAS method (atomic absorption spectrophotometry). Interaction between the examined parameters was defined by multiple regression and correlation analysis. The results showed higher concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Mn, except for Fe, in the grain from Donji Miholjac than from Kutjevo. High concentration variability of macro and microelements in the grain of the examined genotypes depended on location and growing year. Concentration of macro and microelements in the grain did not have significant correlation with the grain yield for the examined genotypes, apart from N and Mg concentration.
Digital seed image analysis of seed remains of three ancient vinegrape samples excavated from 15th-century sites of Hungary was conducted and compared to those of ten currently grown old grapevine varieties. Digital seed images were analysed by Fovea Pro 4.0 computer program, with the final aim to identify the ancient grapevine cultivars with a final genotype reconstruction. Discriminant analysis, XY plot and histogram analyses revealed that seeds of two archaeological samples (11–13) show the closest similarity to the currently grown old vinegrape Vitis v. vinifera cv. ‘Mézesfehér’ (sample 6). Histogram analysis of seed parameter Equiv.Diam. (cm) of the archaeological seed sample ‘Budai vár’ (sample 11) showed diverse multimodal distribution compared to the unimodal distribution of cv. ‘Mézesfehér’ (sample 6), which results indicated that cv. ‘Mézesfehér’ went through a selection through the last five centuries, which narrowed the morphological diversity of this seed character.