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Military considerations in the early 1770s declared the need for a systematic mapping of the eastern regions of Norway along the border to Sweden. After a failed attempt of direct map sketching in the field, the geographical circle was introduced in 1779 to establish a triangular network as a backbone for further positioning of natural and man-made features. The resulting maps were used in preparation of fortresses and planning of defensive field operations. The scale of the triangular network was established by an astronomical baseline supported by linear baselines measured on frozen lakes during winter time. Many stations had latitude determinations from circum-meridian observations of the sun and stars to control the precision of the geodetic triangulation. When discrepancies became too large, a new baseline and a new reference point was selected. The original reference point was the flagpole of the fortress at Kongsvinger, which served as the zero-meridian for mapping in Norway until 1850. Other reference sites, for which accurate latitude and longitude were determined from several years of astronomical observations, were established in Trondheim, Bergen, and Kristiansand as the original triangular arc was expanded around the entire coast of southern Norway to close at Kongsvinger after 3 decades of observations. This allowed astronomical control of the geodetic results.

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Abstract

The Benedictine Monastery of Tihany (founded in 1055 by King Andrew I of Hungary) was in its actual form in two periods (1720–1736 and 1744–1754 respectively) according to two different plans constructed. Contrary to earlier attributions to the Carmelite architect Martin Wittwer the plans were probably made by two master builders of Pest-Buda, Johann Hölbling and Johann Georg Paur. The furnishing (altars, pulpit and organ) lasted from the mid 1750ies to the end of the 1770s. Its iconography reflects the different concepts of two abbots, Ágoston Lécs and Sámuel Vajda. Until now the sculptor of the monastery, Sebastian Stolhoff was considered as the unique author of the whole furniture. Archive studies and observation in the course of restorations have proved, that the furniture was made in the joiners’ workshop of the monastery supervised by Sebastian Stolhoff, a familiar of Tihany Abbey. The workshop has mainly to help the construction of the altars, and the plans as well as the wood sculptures were made by sculptors from the town Pápa (Leopold and Josef Huber) with the exception of the main altar, a work by Ferenc József Schmidt, a sculptor of Veszprém. The gilding and painting of the statues, which according to the guilds’ practice was separated from the sculptural work, was also made by urban masters, mainly Mihály János Stern of Pápa and József Codell of Szé kes fe hér-vár. The geographic circle of the activities of the sculptors and painters working in Tihany can be determined as corresponding to the middle part of Transdanuby.

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