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supported by the Bolyai János Research Grant. References AGTSGN 2007 . = Addendum for Glossary of Terms for the Standardization of Geographical Names. http

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), Frankfurt a.M. 26. Dictionary of Toponymic Terminology 1993. United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, Working Group on Terminology: Part 1 (English, Version 2.0; ed

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Abstract

The paper discusses the influence of the Habsburg topographic surveys and cartography on the toponymic landscape of the former crown land of Galicia. Publicly available maps have had a great impact on the geographical names used both by locals and non-locals. The Habsburg toponymic policy was characterized by non-Germanisation of already existing Galician toponyms. The Habsburg toponymic heritage is therefore of double nature: 1) forms of toponyms popularized by Austro-Hungarian maps (especially by Spezialkarte) influenced a wide toponymic usus as well as the toponymy of the later maps (especially interwar-Polish military maps) – these popularized forms may have differed from the names used by the local communities, which could have been caused by a surveyor’s mistake; 2) the topographic and cartographic materials produced by the Austro-Hungarian institutions are a valuable source for toponomastic research. In the paper, the Austro-Hungarian and interwar-Polish topographic manuals are analysed. These documents defined the way a surveyor had to collect and process geographical names. The examples and possible causes of some Polonized forms occurring in Spezialkarte are discussed. Next, the influence of the Austrian maps on the toponymy of Polish maps is explained. Finally, hilarious examples of cartographic name-copying are given.

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The paper analyzes the data related to the Slavic words used in the language of Hungarian villages of Western Hungary. Its aim is to draw attention to the phenomena of Hungarian–Slavic (namely Slovenian and Croatian) linguistic contacts.

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, cemetery, school, cultural center, cross), and employees (bellringer, forester, herder). In the 20th century, in most of the areas inhabited by the Szeklers, reminders of the former tizes are to be found only in geographical names and vernacular data. The

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Raetia oder Ratiaria?

Caracalla „... in Dacia resedit"? - zu SHA, Ant. Caracalla V.4

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Ádám Szabó

In the year 213 A.D., after defeating the Germans (Alamanns), Caracalla headed for the East by the end of September-beginning of October. According to recent epigraphical evidence, by December of the same year the Emperor was already staying in Nicomedia (17. Dec. 213). The geographical name Raetia mentioned in the itinerary of the Historia Augusta (v. Ant. Caracalla V. 4), deranging the correct order of events could be Ratiaria in the original text. After analysing again the data supplied by the auctors it seems possible that the emperor did not visit Dacia of Traianus during the short time available but only managed issues regarding the province from Ratiaria located in his time at Moesia Superior, but during the period of the formation of the Historia Augusta was in fact inside the territory of Dacia of Aurelianus.

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In the 15th and 16th centuries, humanist scholars traced back the contemporary names of peoples and settlements to similar sounding ancient personal and geographical names. This is how they tried to establish a connection between antiquity and their own times. The same method was used by the Viennese Humanist Johannes Cuspinianus in his work Diarium, which is a report on the events of the 1515 Viennese Congress. Based on folk etymology, Cuspinianus traced back the Latin names of four Hungarian towns (Suppronium, Posonium, Iaurinum, Strigonium) to ancient roots. The analysis of the text suggests that in the case of three towns out of the four, the author made use of Antonio Bonfini’s Rerum Ungaricum decades as a source. As for the remaining town, he followed in the footsteps of earlier humanists and developed his own etymology. The Bonfini-based discussion of the etymologies of the three names can also be found in Austria, another work written by Cuspinianus around 1528. This seems to refute the idea commonly adapted in the literature that Bonfini’s work was completely ignored by scientific circles between the mid-1510s and the 1540s. In light of the above, it may be well worth researching the works of contemporaneous humanists for further traces of the Decades.

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The oral folk prose of Transcarpathia is a valuable source of history and culture of the region. Supplementing the written sources, it has maintained popular attitudes towards events, giving assessments and interpretations that are often different from the official one. In the Ukrainian oral tradition, we find many words borrowed from other languages, in particular Hungarian, which reflects the long period of cohabitation as well as shared historical events and contacts. They also occur in local toponymic legends, which in their own way explain the origin of the local names and are closely linked with the life and culture of the region, contain a lot of ethnographic, historical, mythological, and other information. They are represented mainly by lexical borrowings, Hungarian proper names and realities, which were transformed, absorbed and modified in another system, and, among other things, has served the originality of the Transcarpathian folklore. The process of borrowing the Hungarianisms is marked by heterochronology and a significant degree of assimilation in the receiving environment.

It is known about the long-lasting contacts of the Hungarians with Rus at the time of birth of the homeland - the Honfoglalás, as evidenced by the current geographical names associated with the heroes of the events of that time - the leaders of uprisings Attila, Almash, Prince Latorets (the legends Almashivka, About the Laborets and the White Horse Mukachevo Castle). In the names of toponymic legends and writings there are mentions of the famous Hungarian leaders, the leaders of the uprisings - King Matthias Corvinus, Prince Ferenc Rákóczi II, Lajos Kossuth (the legends Matyashivka, Bovtsar, Koshutova riberiya). Many names of villages, castles and rivers originate from Hungarian lexemes and are their derivatives, explaining the name itself (narratives Sevlyuskyy castle, Gotar, village Gedfork). The times of the Tatar invasion were reflected in the legends The Great Ravine Bovdogovanya and The village Goronda. Sometimes, the nomination is made up of two words - Ukrainian and Hungarian (Mount Goverla, Canyon Grobtedie). In legends, one can find mythological and legendary elements.

The process of borrowing Hungarianisms into Ukrainian is marked by heterochronology, meanwhile borrowings remain unchanged only partially, and in general, they are assimilated in accordance with the phonetic and morphological rules of the Ukrainian language. Consequently, this is a creative process, caused by a number of different factors - social, ethnocultural, aesthetic, etc. In the course of time, events and characters in oral narratives are erased from human memory, so they can be mixed, modified and updated, adapting to new realities.

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Es ist nicht alles Weiß, was so zu sein scheint

Bemerkungen zur Interpretation einiger ungarischer und kroatischer Örtlichkeitsnamen

Not all is White that Looks White: Remarks on the Interpretation of Some Hungarian and Croatian Place-Names

Studia Slavica
Author:
István Vig

Adjektive, die Farben bezeichnen, kommen häufig in Örtlichkeitsnamen vieler Sprachen vor. Unter ihnen befindet sich auch das Adjektiv weiß. Die Motivation und Bedeutung des Farbadjektivs weiß in der Namensgebung einiger Örtlichkeitsnamen bilden den Gegenstand dieser Untersuchung. Der vorliegende Aufsatz ist in zwei Teile gegliedert. Im ersten Teil wird den Beweggründen für die Wahl des Adjektivs weiß in einigen ungarischen, kroatischen und serbischen Örtlichkeitsnamen nachgegangen. Im zweiten Teil werden einige kroatische Ortsnamen behandelt, in denen eine Komponente nur scheinbar die Bedeutung ‘weiß’ hat. In der Wirklichkeit haben die Denotate dieser Örtlichkeitsnamen keine weiße Farbe.

Zur ersten Gruppe gehören die ungarischen Örtlichkeitsnamen Székesfehérvár, Gyulafehérvár, Nándorfehérvár, das kroatische Biograd na moru und das serbische (und auch kroatische) Beograd. Sie sind Zusammensetzungen aus fehér, bio- / beo- ‘weiß’ + vár, grad ‘Burg’. Nach allgemeiner Meinung der Fachliteratur bezieht sich das Adjektiv weiß auf die weiße oder helle Farbe der Steine der Burgen.

In der ungarischen Sprachwissenschaft wurde auch erforscht, wie alt das Kompositum fehérvár sein könnte. Es wurde festgestellt, dass die Magyaren schon drei Burgen bzw. befestigte Städte kannten, bevor sie sich am Ende des 9. Jahrhunderts im Karpatenbecken niederließen.

Zwei Örtlichkeitsnamen davon befanden sich auf chasarischem Gebiet, Sarïγsïn und Šarkel / Sarkel. Der zweite Örtlichkeitsname hat die Bedeutung ‘hell, gelb, bleich, weiß’. Der erste ist ein Kompositum von sarï, sarïγ ‘weiß’ + kil / käl ‘Haus’. Nach der bisherigen Erklärung hätte die Komponente sarï, sarïγ eine Beziehung zur weißen Farbe der Festung. Diese Meinung beruht auf der fehlerhaften Interpretation der schriftlichen Quelle. Erstens: die Mauern der Burg wurden aus roten Ziegeln gebaut. Zweitens: die jüngsten turkologischen Forschungsergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass die Farbe Weiß eine symbolische Bedeutung hatte. Sie ist die symbolische Farbe von Burgen und Gebäuden, die auf ein gehobenes und großes Prestige hindeuten.

Beim dritten Beispiel handelt es sich um den Namen einer Festung am Dnister-Liman, der in verschiedenen Sprachen wiedergegeben wird. Hier wird die Motivation der Komponente weiß durch die hellgraue Mauer der Festung bestätigt.

Fazit. Die Existenz des Namens fehérvár war schon in der urmagyarischen Periode der ungarischen Sprache möglich. Man kann nicht entscheiden, wie er entstand: als Lehnübersetzung oder aufgrund einer gene-rellen Anschauung.

Unter den analysierten kroatischen Örtlichkeitsnamen befinden sich Städtenamen und geographische Namen. Die Stadt Pélmonostor gehörte bis 1918 zu Ungarn. Der kroatische Name ist eine behördlich festgelegte Bezeichnung. Die Komponente monostor wurde übersetzt und der Eigenname Pél wurde durch das ähnlich lautende Adjektiv beli ‘weiß’ ersetzt. Das Adjektiv hat keinen Zusammenhang mit Pél. Der Stadtname Bjelovar ist ungarischer Herkunft (< Bélavár). Der Eigenname Béla wurde volksetymologisch als kroatisch bijel, bijela ‘weiß’ interpretiert und ersetzt. Bei den geographischen Namen Rt (‘Kap’) Bela und Uvala (‘Bucht’) Bela ist die Komponente Bela nicht als Adjektiv, sondern als ein italienischer Familienname zu interpretieren.

Adjectives that denote colours are common in toponyms in many languages. Among them we can also find the adjective white. The motivation and meaning of the colour white in the naming of some place-names form the subject of this study. The present paper is divided into two parts. The first part explores the motivations for choosing the adjective white in some Hungarian, Croatian, and Serbian place-names. The second part deals with some Croatian place-names in which a component only seems to have the meaning ‘white’. In reality, the denotates of these toponyms have no white colour.

The first group includes the Hungarian toponyms Székesfehérvár, Gyulafehérvár, Nándorfehérvár, the Croatian Biograd na moru, and the Serbian (and also Croatian) Beograd. They are compositions of fehér, bio- / beo- ‘white’ + vár, grad ‘castle’. According to the general opinion of the literature on the subject, the adjective white refers to the white or light colour of the stones of the castles.

Hungarian linguists have also researched how old the composite fehérvár could be. It was found that the Magyars already knew three castles or fortified cities before they settled in the Carpathian Basin at the end of the 9th century.

Two of these place-names were located on Khazar territory, Sarïγsïn and Šarkel / Sarkel. The second place-name has the meaning ‘light, yellow, pale, white’. The first is a composition of sarï, sarïγ ‘white’ + kil / käl ‘house’. According to the previous explanation, the component sarï, sarïγ could be related to the white colour of the fortress. This opinion is based on the erroneous interpretation of the written source. First, the walls of the castle were built of red bricks. Second, recent Turkological research suggests that the colour white had a symbolic meaning. It is the symbolic colour of castles and buildings that indicate an upscale and great prestige.

The third example is the name of a fortress on the Dniester Liman, which is reproduced in different languages. Here the motivation of the component white is confirmed by the light gray wall of the fortress.

Conclusions. The existence of the name fehérvár was already possible in Proto-Hungarian. One cannot decide how it was created: as a loan translation or on the basis of a general view.

Among the analyzed Croatian toponyms are city names and geographical names. The town of Pélmonostor belonged to Hungary until 1918. Its Croatian name is an officially defined designation. The component monostor was translated and the proper name Pél was replaced by the similar adjective beli ‘white’. The adjective has no connection with Pél. The city name Bjelovar is of Hungarian origin (< Bélavár). The proper name Béla was folk-etymologically interpreted and replaced by Croatian bijel, bijela ‘white’. In the case of the geographical names Rt (‘Cape’) Bela and Uvala (‘Bay’) Bela, the component Bela is not to be interpreted as an adjective but as an Italian surname.

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oszmánli-törökben. [Toponyms evolved from body part names in the Ottoman-Turkish .] Magyar Nyelv 32 ( 1936 ) 288 – 291 . Hála József : Földrajzi nevek az Ipoly mentén. [Geographical names on the Ipoly side.] In: Börzsöny néprajza. Studia

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