Summary The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether geographical concentration can act as a supplement to the Journal Impact Factor (JIF). The results indicate that the use of a geographical concentration measure opens up new possibilities for analyses of the development of geographic diversion over time. In contrast to measures used in earlier studies the precise strength of the geographical concentration index as a measure of diversion is that it represents diversion as a single value that can be followed over time. The results show wider geographic distribution of European economics journals in the 1980s compared to the American economics journals whereas there seems to be no difference in geographic dispersion in the 1990s.
Geography, economic, socio-political and language are considered to be factors that effect the level of research collaboration. However, to-date no technique has been developed to isolate the effect of geographical proximity from the other factors. This paper presents a methodology for specifically examining geographical effects on intra-national scientific collaboration. An investigation of intra-national university-university collaboration in Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom using this technique demonstrates that research cooperation decreases exponentially with the distance separating the collaborative partners.
This paper deals with the historical geography of Sophene — it aims to determine its original territory and geopolitical developments from Hellenistic times to the eve of the Arab conquests. To achieve this goal, a wide range of sources have been examined with regard to geographical (and ethnographical) information on Sophene — Greek and Latin geographical and ethnographical texts, Greek and Latin historiographical accounts, Byzantine legislations, and finally Armenian writings.In the light of the available data, the heartland of Hellenistic Sophene was located in the triangle marked by the Euphrates (in the west), the Munzur Mountains (in the north), and the Tauros (in the south). This territory includes the modern Dersim (Tunceli), the lower Murat valley (on either side of the river), and the Elaziğ plain, and coincides with the center of the pre-Hellenistic — Suppani. As a political entity Sophene expanded its territory, and especially its expansion in the northeast (including Balabitene and Asthianene) and over the Tauros into the upper Tigris valley (Ingilene, Sophanene) turned out to have more lasting consequences. These territories were closely integrated into Sophene as a political and cultural entity. The first capital of Sophene was ancient Arsamosata (likely located at modern Haraba), but due to the expansion of the kingdom of Sophene over the Tauros, the capital was later moved to the bank of the Tigris as to a more central position (likely today’s Eğil — Strabo’s and Pliny’s Karkathiokerta). Sophene’s political significance resulted from its geographical location — it straddled one of the most important communication lines between West and East in ancient times (the Tomisa crossing).
This paper considers when and on what subjects Thucydides supplies background information (of geographical and other kinds) to help his readers, and concludes that, although he was inconsistent, he did try to grapple with the problem and to realise that there were some matters with which his readers might not be familiar.
Authors:Ramia Z. Al Bakain, Yahya S. Al-Degs, James V. Cizdziel, and Mahmoud A. Elsohly
chemical profiles (i.e., according to different cultivars and geographical origins) [ 3, 12, 14 ]. Chemical profile monitoring is an essential aspect in samples' classification and hence consumer's protection, because blending of cannabis of different
About two decades ago, geographical information systems (GIS) were launched for use in public health (Gatrell 2002 ). Applied GIS research clearly illustrated significant socio-economic peculiarities of public