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Exceptional geomagnetic storms were observed in late August and early September 1859. Auroras were observed around the world, and telegraph wires were damaged. Until now, there has been no evidence published of auroral observations in Spain during this famous space weather event. This paper presents Spanish observations that show the aspect of this great aurora from Spain, and the concurrent effects on European telegraph wires. We also computed the variation of the geomagnetic declination in Spain during recent centuries to put these records into context.

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HF absorption enhancements following major geomagnetic storms are analysed, using the superposed epoch method, to examine the geomagnetic latitude limit of the after-effect phenomenon. The absorption data were obtained from one double hop and two single hop A3 transmission paths with ionospheric points at Fgeomag = 3:54oN and ~6. 40oN (15. 40 MHz), Fgeomag ~ 9N (4. 87 MHz), and Fgeomag ~ 11oN (6. 09 MHz) respectively. Presently, the results have shown that enhancement in absorption following major storms could be traced to the low latitude of 3. 54oN.

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