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). Sustainable production of geothermal energy: suggested definition . IGA-News, Quarterly no. 43, January–March 2001, 1 – 2 . B. J. Barker 2000 The Geysers

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Dickson M. H., Fanelli M. What is geothermal energy, Istituto di geoscienze e Georisorse , CNR, Pisa, Italy, 2004. Fanelli M

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The Triassic karstic aquifer is the system with the greatest potential for the utilization of thermal waters in Serbia. As an integral part of the Dinaric tectonic unit, the Triassic aquifer extends widely over the western part of the Serbian territory and is characterized by cold waters. In contrast, the same but confined type of aquifer overlain by thick Tertiary sediments in the Pannonian Basin has significant geothermal potential. The major potential for tapping geothermal flow is in the southern and southwestern parts of the Pannonian Basin (Srem) and in the adjacent areas of Mačva and Semberija in the Sava tectonic graben. In these areas the Triassic karstic aquifer has been tapped by several boreholes with depths ranging from 400 m to 2400 m. The temperature of the hottest water exceeds 75 °C, while maximal discharge is 40 l/s.

Although the prospect of wider utilization of geothermal energy undoubtedly exists, some Serbian national plans count on a limited contribution of geothermal energy in renewable energy sources of only 4%. This is probably due to the low level of current utilization, and the inefficient use of even some highly productive wells with a high water temperature, such as those drilled in the most prosperous Mačva region.

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Central European Geology
Authors: Attila Kovács, Ágnes Rotár Szalkai, Zsolt Kercsmár, and Tibor Cserny

://www.transenergy-eu.geologie.ac.at/ . Rotár-Szalkai , A. , Gy. Tóth , Gy. Maros , L. Lenkey , G. Götzl , A. Lapanje , R. Černák 2013 : Integrated geoscientific modelling of the Transenergy project area . — In: Geothermal Energy towards new horizon. European Geothermal

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Heating with the use of ambient energy by heat pumps is a very effective way to reduce CO2 emission. However, efficiency, economic and environmental advantages depend on the type of the heat pump and the temperature of the source, the latter usually changes during the heating season. The aim of the paper is to give the annual pattern of the COP and emission as a function of the typical source temperature pattern, moreover yearly summarized energetic and emission values are also added in the case of air source, water source and ground source heat pump systems, compared to some conventional heating mode.

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]. Mádlné Szőnyi , J. ( 2008 ). A geotermikus energiahasznosítás nemzetközi és hazai helyzete, jövőbeni lehetőségei Magyarországon [International and Domestic Situation of the Utilization of Geothermal Energies, Future Potentials in Hungary] . Hungarian

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geothermal energy (among the renewable sources) is that it is weather independent, unlikely the wind or solar power; it can also be continuously extracted and it has a very high capacity factor ( Chamorro et al. 2014 ). On the other hand, it has some

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, perspektívái (The situation and perspectives of geothermal energy) Magyar Tudomány 8 926 – 936 . [2]. György Balázs , K. ( 2012

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Hungary’s potential in geothermal energy is quite remarkable. In order to protect the quantity and the quality of the surface and sub-surface water sources and the soil as well it is important to find an environmental friendly way for the discharge of the geothermal waste water. If this problem is solved from an environmental and legal point of view, thermal water is going to be the most promising energy source of Hungary. The aim of this study was to work out a system of criteria, the fulfillment of which would allow the discharge of utilized thermal water.

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Abstract

Geothermal energy source is the heat from the Earth, which ranges from the shallow ground (the upper 100 m of the Earth) to the hot water and hot rock which is a few thousand meters beneath the Earth's surface. In both cases the so-called open systems for geothermal energy resource exploitation consist of a groundwater production well to supply heat energy and an injection well to return the cooled water, from the heat pump after the thermal energy transfer, in the underground. In the paper an analytical method for a rapid estimation of the ground water flow direction effect on the coupled production well and injection well system will be proposed. The method will be illustrated with solutions and images for representative flow directions respect to the axis of the production/injection well system.

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