EN 410 ( 2011 ): Glass in building. Determination of luminous and solar characteristics of glazing
ISO 15099 ( 2003 ): Thermal performance of windows, doors and shading devices – Detailed calculations
thermal insulation). The doors and glazed structures in the façade are designed with three-layer insulated glazing. Structures’ thermal properties (including all relevant layers) according to Hungarian building energy regulation 7/2006 (V.24. TNM, 5.) and
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to determine relative manufacturing locales of lead-glazed earthenwares recovered from four Spanish missions in Texas. Two principal clays were distinguished, one containing volcanic ash and one sand. The ceramics characterized by the volcanic ash were believed to have been manufactured in Mexico, while those containing sand were made in Texas. This distinctionis important because it suggests that the Indians at the Texas missions were manufacturing ceramics using Spanish technology such as lead-glazing.
Authors:C. Xavier, C. Costa, S. Crispim, M. Bernardi, M. Maurera, M. Conceiçăo, E. Longo, and A. Souza
The pigments used in ceramic applications are of nature predominantly inorganic and they should be thermally stable, insoluble
in glazing, resistant to the chemical and physical agents' attacks. This work aimed at the synthesis by the polymeric precursor
method of ZrO2-based inorganic pigments, doped with Fe, Ni, Co, Cr and Cu cations. The fired pigments were characterized by thermogravimetry
(TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Among the metals used to zirconium-doping, the best
result was achieved with the cations Cu, which presented the monophase pigment, even as 20 mol% of dopant. Up to the temperature
of 1000C the pigments presented a good thermal stability.
Authors:D. Bishop, P. Thomas, A. Ray, and P. Šimon
Toughened glass panels used as a glazing material in multistorey buildings are known to fracture prematurely when they contain
nickel sulfide inclusions as a result of the α-β phase recrystallisation in nickel sulfide. The kinetics of this recrystallisation
were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The recrystallisation
was observed to be a two-step process with an induction period followed by the phase change. A two-stage kinetic model was
used to estimate the recrystallisation time under ambient conditions. These values were found to correlate well with the observed
time to failure for glass panels installed in multistorey buildings.
Adaptive solar shading systems have in comparison with the traditional systems of shading increased potential ability to improve the quality of the indoor environment and to increase the energy performance of buildings. Their extension allows all-around technological progress, but also the extensive application of large-scale glazing in building envelopes almost in all climatic regions. The literature review shows that the characteristics of the individual adaptive shading systems differ. Some have better performance in the sun protection or in improving the building's energy balance; others for example are better in glare elimination or in redistribution of daylight. The main purpose of this contribution is to provide a classification of the adaptive solar shading systems. In the article are compared merits and shortcomings of adaptive shading systems and are shortly analyzed assumptions of their wider application in central European climate conditions. Attention is also given to advantages and disadvantages, which brings the application of some kinds of adaptive solar shading systems. Several examples of adaptive shading systems are shown and briefly characterized.