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242 83 99 Caballero, L., Martýn, L.M., Alvarez, J.B. 2004. Variation and genetic diversity for gliadins in Spanish spelt wheat accessions. Genet

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Metakovsky, E.V., Novoselskaya, A.Yu. 1991. Gliadin allele identification in common wheat. I. Methodological aspects of the analysis of gliadin patterns by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. J. Genet. Breed. 5 :317

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Glutenin and gliadin subunits play a key role in flour processing quality by network formation in dough. Wild relatives of crops have served as a pool of genetic variation for decades. In this study, 180 accessions from 12 domesticated and wild relatives of wheat were characterized for the glutenin and gliadin genes with allele-specific molecular markers. A total of 24 alleles were detected for the Glu-A3 and Gli-2A loci, which out of 19 amplified products identified as new alleles. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 90 and 65% of the genetic diversity were partitioned within two Aegilops and Triticum genera and their species, respectively. Furthermore, all glutenin and gliadin analyzed loci were polymorphic, indicating large genetic diversity within and between the wild species. Our results revealed that allelic variation of Glu-3A and Gli-As.2 is linked to genomic constitutions so that, Ae. caudata (C genome), Ae. neglecta (UM genome), Ae. umbellulata (U genome) and T. urartu (Au genome) harbor wide variation in the studied subunits. Hence, these species can be used in wheat quality breeding programs.

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Plant sucking aphids cause both quantitative and qualitative yield losses in cereals; moreover aphid-transmitted viruses are responsible for other quantitative and qualitative damages, thus direct or indirect effects of aphid infection are in focus of interest. Bread-making quality of wheat flour is determined primarily by the protein content and composition, the gluten proteins (glutenins, gliadins) being the prime factors. Allelic composition of the gliadin- and glutenin loci as well as the absolute amount and/or the relative ratio of gliadins to glutenins are very important in dough making and in determining baking quality. Wheat plants were caged at the beginning of stem elongation. Cages were treated with 0.1% methyl parathion. One week later, the caged plants were artificially infected with 5 alata individuals of Metopolophium dirhodum, Diuraphis noxia, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi. Flour from grains originating from plants infected artificially with cereal aphids were analyzed for glutenin and gliadin and total protein content, using Size Exclusion HPLC. It was found that aphid infection had significant effect on the glutenin and gliadin content, the total protein content and the gliadin/glutenin ratio. Both the glutenin and gliadin content was significantly higher in the seeds harvested from aphid infected plants. However, the gliadin/glutenin ratio was significantly lower in wheat flour prepared from aphid infected plants than in those from uninfected control. The most significant decrease in gliadin/glutenin ratio was caused by M. dirhodum, D. noxia, S. avenae infection followed by R. padi at high-abundance and low-abundance, respectively. As the gliadin/glutenin ratio was significantly lower in flours made from aphid infected wheat seeds, it may be suggested that aphid feeding results in decreased bread making quality of wheat flour.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: A. shahnejat Bushehri, A. Salavati, B. yazdi Samadi, M. Hassani, and S. Shahnejat Bushehri

Brandlard, G., Dardevet, M., Nieto-Taladriz, M.T., Khelife, D. 1993 Allelic of omega gliadins as revealed by SDS-PAGE. Their possible implication in quality variation. Gluten 93 :234

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14 Bushuk W and R R Zillman, 1978: Wheat cultivar identification by gliadin electrophoregrams. I Apparatus, method and nomenclature. Can. J. Plant Sci. 58 : 505

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. 1989 77 689 700 Anderson, O.D., Hsia, C.C., Torres, V. 2001. The wheat γ -gliadin genes: Characterization of ten

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216 81 90 Dachkevitch, T., Redaelli, R., Biancardi, A.M., Metakovsky, E.V., Pogna, N.E. 1993. Genetics of gliadins coded by the group 1 chromosomes

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between gliadin bands and flour quality characteristics. J. Cereal Sci. 3 :329–343. Dardevet M. Diversity of grain proteins and bread wheat quality. I. Correlation between gliadin

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Cornish, G.B., Békés, F., Eagles, H.A., Payne, P.I. 2006. Prediction of dough properties for bread wheats. In: Wrigley, C., Békés, F., Bushuk, W. (eds), Gliadin and glutenin. AACC, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, pp

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