Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 62 items for :

  • "global challenges" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

The article evaluates how well the goals of the European Green Deal are justified, especially considering the risks to energy and food security arising from the conflict between Russia and Ukraine. We agree with the objectives of the European Green Agreement as a whole, but whether some of the objectives which feature in the EASAC study can be achieved by 2030 is questionable, and the description of the tools necessary to achieve the objectives is incomplete. Among other things, there is hardly any mention of the role played by precision farming with digitalization, which is a revolutionary change from an ecological and economic point of view, in reducing the use of synthetic inputs, in regenerating the original state of the soil, in reducing GHG emissions, thus in increasing biodiversity, and at the same time in intensifying production, and finally in expanding the application of biotechnology. We examine these areas in our analysis. Some of the objectives of the EASAC study to be achieved by 2030 are subject to debate, and the description of the information and communication conditions necessary to achieve the objectives is incomplete. The IoT (Internet of Things) responds to global and local challenges: it integrates the precision technologies, WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks), artificial intelligence, mobile field (Smart Small Robots) and remote data loggers (UAVs: Unmanned Air Vehicles and satellites), Big Data, and cloud computing. Consequently, decision support is increasingly developing into unmanned decision making. IoT (Internet of Things) is the basis of “Farm to Fork” and “Lab to Field” monitoring approaches.

This article evaluates the implementation of European Green Agreement objectives in light of energy and food security risks arising from the Russia-Ukraine conflict. While overall support for the agreement exists, the feasibility of certain EASAC study objectives by 2030 is called into question due to insufficient tools specifications. Notably absent is the emphasis on precision farming with digitalization, which is a transformative ecological and economic practice. Our analyses look into its function in reducing synthetic inputs, soil regeneration, GHG emission reduction, biodiversity enhancement, production intensification, and biotechnology development. Debates surround EASAC study objectives for 2030, despite limited information and communication restrictions. The Internet of Things (IoT) arises as a solution, combining precision technology, WSNs (wireless sensor networks), AI (artificial intelligence), smart small robots, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles), satellites, big data, and cloud computing. As a result, decision support turns toward unmanned decision-making, with IoT laying the groundwork for “Farm to Fork” and “Lab to Field” monitoring systems.

Open access

The article discusses the main challenges and possibilities faced by the Hungarian agricultural sector, in light of developments on global agricultural markets, EU-membership, and other issues. Global developments, such as the accelerated development of agricultural technology, shifting structure of demand and the restructuring of international agricultural trade, the reform of the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy and the increasing social tensions in rural Hungary have far-reaching impacts on the conditions affecting the operation of Hungarian agriculture, and definitely require a change in our thinking. The article provides certain recommendations for Hungarian agricultural policies: (1) the diversity of farms should be taken into consideration; (2) rapid technological development based on scientific results must be made a priority; (3) a higher level of coordination between the state and the private sector is required; (4) a new type of synthesis between agriculture and rural areas must be created; and (5) physical and social infrastructure in rural areas must be developed.

Restricted access

A vén Európa ifjúsága

The Youth of Old Europe

Educatio
Author:
György Csepeli

Absztrakt:

A cikk az európai társadalmakra váró 21. századi kihívásokkal foglalkozik, melyekre az európai fiataloknak kell megtalálniuk a választ. Európa demográfiai és gazdasági súlya a világban folyamatosan csökken. A bevándorlás várhatóan teljesen megváltoztatja a földrész kulturális jellegét. A Kelet–Nyugat különbség azonban nem csökken. A magyar fiatalok előnyben részesítik a teljesítmény értékét, szemben európai kortársaikkal, akik inkább az altruizmus iránt elkötelezettek. Az európai egységesülés kulcskérdése a közös nyelv és az európai identitás, mely nem tagadja, hanem kiegészíti a nemzeti identitást. Az európai identitás kialakításának feltétele az egységes európai politikai szocializáció.

Open access

Surveying the ways—along with the whys and hows—of connecting law and philosophising, as contrasted to the appearances of modern formal law, it is concluded that in the final analysis law is a façon de parler—a specific communication, or game carried out in an open scene—, an actual event, if one played by humans practicing whilst simultaneously referencing it. The contemporary outcome of reflection upon its developments is (1) the reduction of legal philosophising to discourse-reconstruction, in terms of which instead of the issue of “what is it?”, “all that notwithstanding: how can it be achieved?” is usually raised; (2) the unresolved enigma of natural law, calling for axiology to define at least some foundational standards as stepping stones (albeit without a claim that any statement has genuinely concluded from them or been subordinated to them, as in the classical era when natural law and positive law were at odds); and (3) positive law without legal positivism, according to which a new synthesis and correlation amongst humans’ natural, societal and intellectual worlds is expected to be reached. At the same time, flourishing at the peripheries, a genuine foundation is coming to the fore, in order to suitably respond to global challenges.

Full access

As global challenges to sustainable development are increasing, there is a growing pressure for educational systems to embed education for sustainable development (ESD) into formal education. To meet this demand, Eco-School systems were established in many countries during the past decades. Using General Inductive Approach to analyze raw data sources like interviews with experts and eco-school principals, documents, and official as well as educational research databases both in Hungary and in Israel, the paper compares the process and the outcome of the implementation of eco-school movement in Hungary and Israel. The major conclusion is that eco-school system itself has a significant positive but limited effect on the implementation of ESD in educational systems. Without a person, a “change agent,” without the commitment of the principal or the teachers, the central eco-school initiative could not trigger changes on local levels; however, eco-school systems may survive for another decade if eco-school teachers continue innovation and collective learning. On the system level, the existence of the movement demonstrates the sustainability pedagogy for decision-makers – and therefore they can be satisfied without further efforts.

Open access

Abstract

Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy is an emerging psychiatric treatment that is attracting significant scientific, medical, and public attention. Whilst preliminary results from empirical studies are promising, the medical use of these compounds is highly controversial. Surprisingly, and despite the current controversies caused by the re-medicalisation of psychedelics, bioethicists have remained mysteriously silent. This paper aims to stimulate further bioethical reflection regarding the re-medicalisation of psychedelics. The current paper aims to do this by applying a normative phenomenological lens of analysis. Namely, this paper applies Martin Heidegger's critique of modern technology, and Fredrik Svenaeus' extension of this critique, to the re-medicalisation of psychedelics. I argue that when this critique of modern technology is applied several normative issues become apparent. Specifically, it becomes apparent that the re-medicalisation of psychedelics risks turning the ecological sources, cultural contexts, and experiences induced by psychedelics into resources to be exploited for human goals; all of which risks endangering ecosystems, appropriating traditional knowledge, and reducing the therapeutic effects of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. Furthermore, I suggest that preserving non-reductionist, non-instrumentalising traditional ways of understanding psychedelic compounds is essential in mitigating these consequences. More discussion by bioethicists is necessary as these consequences represent important global challenges for the psychedelic renaissance that require immediate addressing.

Open access

Abstract

Infectious diseases pose a formidable global challenge, compounded by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Consequently, researchers are actively exploring novel antimicrobial compounds as potential solutions. This endeavor underscores the pivotal role of methods employed for screening and evaluating antimicrobial activity—a critical step in discovery and characterization of antimicrobial agents. While traditional techniques such as well-diffusion, disk-diffusion, and broth-dilution are commonly utilized in antimicrobial assays, they may encounter limitations concerning reproducibility and speed. Additionally, a diverse array of antimicrobial assays including cross-streaking, poisoned-food, co-culture, time-kill kinetics, resazurin assay, bioautography, etc., are routinely employed in antimicrobial evaluations. Advanced techniques such as flow-cytometry, impedance analysis, and bioluminescent technique may offer rapid and sensitive results, providing deeper insights into the impact of antimicrobials on cellular integrity. However, their higher cost and limited accessibility in certain laboratory settings may present challenges. This article provides a comprehensive overview of assays designed to characterize antimicrobial activity, elucidating their underlying principles, protocols, advantages, and limitations. The primary objective is to enhance understanding of the methodologies designed for evaluating antimicrobial agents in our relentless battle against infectious diseases. By selecting the appropriate antimicrobial testing method, researchers can discern suitable conditions and streamline the identification of effective antimicrobial agents.

Open access

The world has finite water resources, which are under increasing stress as the human population and water demand per capita both increase. These problems are not new but are now becoming more widespread and their impacts more devastating. This has provided additional impetus for the search for solutions to problems arising from the mismatch between demand and supply in terms of water quantity, quality and timing. Increasing water productivity has been identified as one of the global challenges that require urgent attention.This study examines approaches to assessing water productivity in agriculture. Many studies have been carried out on agricultural water productivity [WP] in the world, where most of these studies, specifically in relation to water and food policies of WP, are considered in regional or watershed scale. There are many methods of calculating evapotranspiration (ETc) on regional scale but remote sensing technique since last decade of this century has become more popular one. SEBAL algorithm was used in this research to calculate ETc. Last versions of SEBAL algorithm can calculate aerial crop biomass and then can calculate crop water productivity. In this research, five cloudless MODIS and AVHRR images from Qazvin plain which is located in the center of Iran were selected, and then water productivity calculated with SEBAL algorithm, which runs with ENVI and ILWIS models on MODIS and AVHRR images. Amount of ETc, which was estimated from SEBAL, compared with lysimeter data with r-square [R2] value of 0.9 for MODIS images and 0.81 for AVHRR images. Estimated ETc was higher than lysimeter data in AVHRR and lower than it in MODIS images. Water productivity was estimated 0.76 and 1.03 kg/m3 in MODIS and AVHRR images respectively, but is 0.9 kg/m3 in lysimeter.

Restricted access

A doktori képzés nemzetközi és hazai átalakulása

The International and Domestic Transformation of Doctoral Education

Educatio
Authors:
Gabriella Pusztai
,
Judit Fináncz
, and
Dorina Anna Tóth

Összefoglaló. A doktori képzés területén jelentős nemzetközi átrendeződés történt a 2000-es évektől. Magyarország a doktori képzés rendszerváltás utáni kialakításakor a stabilabb képzési környezetet teremtő programmodell mellett döntött, azonban a globális kihívások (hosszú képzési idő, tanulói státusz) a magyarországi doktori képzést is érintik. Ez indokolta a doktori képzés struktúraváltását 2016-ban. Tanulmányunkban áttekintjük a nemzetközi és hazai változásokat a képzésben, s képet adunk a hazai beiskolázási adatokról is, melyekhez a Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, az Országos Doktori Tanács, a Diplomás Pályakövetési Rendszer (N = 509) és a Persist (N = 1020) létszámadatait és adatbázisait használtuk. Eredményeinkből egy lassan növekvő és tudományterületileg erősen tagolt doktorandusz-társadalom képe bontakozik ki. Tanulmányunk fontos megállapítása, hogy a doktori képzés vonzását a felsőoktatás korábbi szintjein szerzett kedvező tapasztalatokkal lehet növelni.

Summary. There has been a significant international reorganization in the field of doctoral training since the 2000s. After the change of regime, Hungary opted for a program model that created a more stable training environment, but global challenges (e.g. long training time, student status) also affect doctoral training in Hungary. These problems led to a structural change in doctoral training in 2016. In our study, we review international and domestic changes in education, and provide an overview of domestic enrollment data, for which we analyze the headcount data and databases of the Central Statistical Office, the National Doctoral Council, the Graduate Career Tracking System (N = 509) and Persist (N = 1020). In our results, we present an expanding, but highly divided doctoral student society. An important finding of our study is that the attractiveness of doctoral training can be increased by the positive experience gained at previous levels of higher education.

Open access