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Authors: József Szabó, Emese Andrásofszky, Tamás Tuboly, András Bersényi, Andrea Weisz, Nikoletta Hetényi and István Hullár

Andrews, F. J. and Griffiths, R. D. (2002): Glutamine: Essential for immune nutrition in the critically ill. Br. J. Nutr. 87 , S3–S8. Griffiths R. D. Glutamine: Essential for immune

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. Lea , D.J. , Robinson , S.A. , Steward , G.R. 1990 . The enzymology and metabolism of glutamine, glutamate and asparagines . In: Miflin, B.J. , Lea, P.J. (eds), The Biochemistry of Plants , Vol. 16 . Academics Press , New York

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E Ok 2007 Effects of glutamine-enriched total parenteral nutrition on acute pancreatitis Eur J Clin Nutr 61 1429 34

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Authors: Lydia Gil, S. Saura, Arantxa Echegaray, Felisa Martinez, I. de Blas, A. Akourki, Noelia Gonzalez, E. Espinosa and A. Josa

Lu, S. S. and Kelly, W. G. (1999): Effects of taurine, glutamine and culture dishes on the in vitro development of bovine embryos. Theriogenology 51, 244. Effects of taurine, glutamine and culture dishes on the in vitro

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Excess molar heat capacities of (L-glutamine aqueous solution+D-glutamine aqueous solution) were determined by using a differential scanning calorimeter at temperatures between 293.15 and 303.15 K. Excess molar heat capacities are all negative. Excess molar heat capacities decrease with increasing temperature.

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. 4. R Oehler E Roth 2003 Regulative capacity of glutamine Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition

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Authors: R. Tömösközi-Farkas, Zs. Polgár, M. Nagy-Gasztonyi, V. Horváth, T. Renkecz, K. Simon, F. Boross, Z. Fabulya and H. Daood

Anti-nutritive components in multi resistant potato cultivars were investigated in relation to conventional and organic farming for three years. Glycoalkaloids, nitrate, nitrite, asparagine, and glutamine contents of tubers were examined. Farming technology was found not to have an effect on the level of glycoalkaloids, which was influenced mostly by the genotype and season. Nitrogen fertilisation caused significant increase in nitrate, asparagine, and glutamine contents as compared to organic farming. Nitrite content was found to be more independent of farming technologies than nitrate. Tubers of cultivar Rioja had the lowest nitrate content irrespective of season or technology. In conclusion, the absolute amount and changes of different anti-nutritive components of potato tubers were influenced differently by the technology, genotype, and season in a complex manner. Organic farming had no effect on the glycoalkaloid content, but the nitrate levels had a tendency to be lower compared to conventional farming. This can be seen as a positive effect of organic farming.

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Two wheat genotypes were grown in hydroponic culture, containing 4 mM KNO3, NH4Cl and NH4NO3. Activities of N metabolizing enzymes, aminotransferases, carbohydrate and TCA cycle enzymes were analyzed along with protein, amino acid, N, sugar content and growth parameters in shoot and root. After 12 days, the size of shoot and root system decreased significantly when plants were supplied with NH4Cl as exclusive N source. Under NH4NO3 growth parameters, N and carbon metabolism were elevated as compared to NH4Cl but less than KNO3 source indicating inhibition of NH4 + toxicity by NO3 uptake. Our results suggested that GDH, aminotransferases and PEPC play an important role in ammonium detoxification by its incorporation into amino acids. Thus, the morphologic differences among plants growing in NH4 + or NO3 nutrition confirm the hypothesis that N source determines the growth habit of plant in wheat by modulating the endogenous levels of protein and sugar content.

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Authors: A. E. Mekonnen, Radha Prasanna and B. D. Kaushik

Dharmawardene, M. W. N., Haystead, A., Stewart, W. D. P. (1973) Glutamine synthetase of the nitrogen fixing alga Anabaena cylindrica. Arch. Microbiol. 90 , 281-296. Glutamine synthetase of the nitrogen fixing alga Anabaena cylindrica

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. Ávila , C. , Cantón , F.R. , Barnestein , P. , Suárez , M.F. , Marraccini , P. , Rey , M. , Humara , J.M. , Ordas , R. , Cánovas , F.M. 2001 . The promoter of a cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene from the conifer Pinus

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