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The activity response of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and the contents of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) were investigated in rats exposed to lead. The enzyme activities were determined in the liver, kidney and heart of male and female rats which were received 100 mg and 1000 mg of lead acetate per liter water for 18 weeks. The statistical analyses indicated the differences related to the organs and to the sex of animals. Administration of lead evoked decrease of GPx activity in the kidney of both male and female rats. On the contrary, GPx activity increased in the heart of female rats, while in the male rats the higher dose of lead evoked a decrease in activity. In the kidneys of male rats and in the heart of female rats thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an indicators of oxidative stress, significantly increased in rats which were given the high lead dose. Most likely the observed changes could be a compensatory response to different lead accumulation in the male and female organs and also the possible distinct mechanisms in ROS elimination.

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Fatty acid hydroperoxide-producing lipoxygenase (LOX) and hydroperoxide-degrading glutathione peroxidase (GPOX) enzyme activities were studied in leaves of virus resistant Xanthi-nc and susceptible Samsun-nn tobacco cultivars after inoculation with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Total LOX activity showed a maximum at pH 5.5 in cell-free extracts of uninfected leaves. LOX activity markedly increased at this pH after TMV inoculation, but a substantial induction was detected also in the basic pH range with an emerging peak around pH = 8.5. TMV-elicited LOX induction was weaker and appeared later in Samsun-nn than in Xanthi-nc leaves. GPOX activity was also substantially induced by TMV infection. However, this induction appeared only 4 days post-inoculation in resistant Xanthi-nc plants in tissues surrounding the localized necrotic lesions. In contrast, GPOX activity did not change in TMV-inoculated, susceptible Samsun-nn leaves. Several glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes also display GPOX activity. The expression of a tau class GST gene was markedly induced by TMV inoculation in Xanthi-nc leaves. This tobacco GST gene was partially cloned and sequenced.

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Glutathione peroxidase enzyme superfamily plays significant role in the elimination of reactive oxygen free radicals in the animals. Many characteristics of these proteins have been revealed already, but their regulation is still not known. Several data suggest that some environmental factors have certain regulatory effect, while others propose strict genetic regulation.In this report we present four different environmental induction models in which New Zealand white rabbits were used as experimental animals. In three models, free radical load of different origin, lipidperoxide load, application of a glutathione depletor or a prooxidant agent, was introduced. Beside these negative models a positive model was also constructed in which additive selenium was supplied.Glutathione peroxidase activity was measured in blood serum, erythrocyte haemolysate and liver. Reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde concentration in the liver were also determined.According to the results, the established models are capable for analysing the enzyme activity´environmental interactions.

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One of the major classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors is the class of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Receptor activation recruits, via calcium signal transduction mechanisms which play important roles in oxidative metabolism, mitochondrial free radical production and occurrence of other mitochondrial factors which potentially contribute to excitotoxicity and neuronal death. In the present study, the effects of stimulation of NMDARs by applying N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) in the brain, liver, kidneys and pancreas on change of the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and in the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH) in blood, brain, liver and kidneys has been investigated. Statistically significant decrease of the activity of SOD, CAT and GSHPx and in the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH) was found in the examined organs after administration of NMDA, an agonist of NMDA receptors, demonstrating that NMDA administration compromises the antioxidant status in the investigated organs of the mouse.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
C. Baskett
,
J. Morris
,
V. Spate
,
M. Mason
,
T. Cheng
,
T. Nichols
,
H. Anderson
,
C. Tharp
,
T. Horsman
, and
R. Dowdy

Abstract  

The objective of this study was to determine if a stable enriched tracer of Se-76 could be used to establish the delay time between a dietary intake of selenium and its appearance in various matrices. Selenium, an essential trace element, has been investigated at the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) for several years. Several matrices have been studied to determine selenium status in humans; these include fingernails, toenails, blood, hair, and urine. A cohort of five women and seven men was utilized for this study. Each subject ingested selenium supplements which were enriched in Se-76 (96.48%). Fingernails, toenails, whole blood, and blood sera were collected as biochemical indicators. Selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activities were determined in blood sera and whole blood to monitor the effect of the selenium supplement in these matrices. Selenium concentrations were determined in fingernails and toenails prior to supplementation and for several months afterward to determine the delay time for the appearance of selenium. The effects of the selenium supplement on the selenium concentrations of the fingernails, toenails, whole blood, and blood sera and the effect of the supplement on glutathione peroxidase activity will be reported.

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GSH-Px glutathione peroxidase H 2 O 2 hydrogen peroxide • HO hydroxyl

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conserved in vertebrates, even in poultry, and this is partly based on the antioxidant defence, including the glutathione redox system ( Surai et al., 2019 ). OTA-induced oxidative stress affects the enzymatic (glutathione peroxidases) and the non

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Dániel Tamás Nagy
,
Béla Fülesdi
, and
Judit Hallay

.: Serum selenium and glutathione peroxidase-3 activity: biomarkers of systemic inflammation in the critically ill? Intensive Care Med., 2009, 35 , 882–889. Galusso F. Serum selenium and

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The effect of feeding ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated diet (379.6 and 338.1 μg/kg in starter and grower diets) on production traits, lipid peroxidation and some parameters of the glutathione redox system were investigated in weaned piglets over a seven-week period. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) did not differ significantly, but in the first phase (0–28 days) the daily weight gain was significantly lower in the piglets fed the OTA-contaminated diet. Lipid peroxidation, as measured by the amount of malondialdehyde, glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity, did not change significantly in the blood plasma and red blood cell haemolysate in the OTA-loaded group, while malondialdehyde content increased significantly in the liver and markedly but not significantly in the kidney of piglets fed OTA-contaminated feed. Glutathione content did not differ significantly in the studied organs of the two groups while glutathione peroxidase activity of the OTA-loaded animals was significantly lower both in the liver and in the kidney. The results suggest that the use of feed-stuffs contaminated with low levels of OTA for seven weeks did not cause marked differences in the production traits or in lipid peroxidation and amount or activity of the glutathione redox system in the blood plasma, red blood cells and kidney, while significant changes occurred in the liver homogenate.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Csilla Pelyhe
,
Benjámin Kövesi
,
Erika Zándoki
,
Balázs Kovács
,
Judit Szabó-Fodor
,
Miklós Mézes
, and
Krisztián Balogh

The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of a single oral dose of T-2 and HT-2 toxin at 0.15, 0.33 and 1.82 mg kg−1 body weight, or deoxynivalenol (DON) and 15-acetyl-DON at 0.13, 0.31 and 1.75 mg kg−1 body weight in common carp. Conjugated dienes and trienes (the early markers of lipid peroxidation) were elevated in all DON-treated groups at the 16th hour, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; termination marker) were increased at the highest dose of DON at the 16th and 24th hours. T-2 toxin did not cause changes in these parameters. Glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity showed higher levels at the 16th hour as the effect of both mycotoxins. The expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) genes (gpx4a and gpx4b) revealed a dual response. Downregulation was observed at the 8th hour, followed by an induction at the 16th hour, at the lowest dose of both mycotoxins. Higher doses revealed long-drawn emergence and an elevation was observed only at the 24th hour. However, at the lowest and highest doses of DON or T-2 toxin the changes in gene expression were delayed, which may be related to the low oxidative stress response, as suggested by the expression profiles of the nrf2, keap1, gpx4a and gpx4b genes.

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