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In a model experiment, Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were fed on a cornsilage-based diet supplemented with 11.75 MJ NE l per day of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CAS) or hydrogenated triglyceride (HTG) or without fat supplementation (control). All diets were fed to the cows over a period from 21 ± 3 days (d) prior to the expected calving to d 100 ± 5 postpartum. On d 25 (basal sample) and d 14 prepartum as well as on d 5 and 25 postpartum liver samples were collected by percutaneous biopsy. Total lipid content, fatty acid composition and glycogen of liver tissues were determined. At d 5 postpartum, both control and CAS cows had higher liver lipid (P < 0.05) and lower glycogen (P < 0.05) concentrations than cows in the HTG group. No significant (P < 0.05) differences were detected in liver fat content among the groups at d 14 prepartum or d 25 postpartum. The glycogen concentration slightly decreased in the liver of cows in each treatment group from d 14 prepartum to d 5 postpartum; however, this decrease was more intensive in both the control and CAS groups than in the HTG group. The variations in liver lipid concentrations were accompanied by significant changes in the proportion of C16:0, C16:1n-7, C18:0, C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6 and C20:4n-6 fatty acids in the liver lipids. The results show that HTG supplementation exerted more advantageous effects on liver lipid and glycogen metabolism than did CAS supplementation.

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processes, including glycolysis ( Li et al., 2021 ). As an enzyme that catalyses the degradation of glycogen, glycogen phosphorylase (GP) regulates glycolytic rate early postmortem. The active form of glycogen phosphorylase (GPa) catalyses the decomposition

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
M Tremblay
,
LM Bussieres
,
FP Pettigrew
,
W. Fielding
,
EG Noble
,
Z. Radak
, and
AW Taylor

Exercise training, like diazepam, is commonly employed as a means of reducing anxiety. Both diazepam and exercise training have been shown to modify carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as influence calcium metabolism in skeletal muscle.As receptor binding and thereby efficacy of diazepam has been demonstrated to be modulated by the lipid environment of the receptor, and changes in calcium levels can affect a number of intracellular signalling pathways, we sought to determine if the interaction of both chronic diazepam and exercise training would modify selected metabolic indices in an animal model. For this purpose, muscle and liver glycogen, blood glucose and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) were measured in sedentary, exercise trained and exercise trained, acutely exhausted animals. Alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were observed in all experimental groups. Diazepam treatment alone exerts metabolic consequences, such as elevated muscle glycogen and plasma FFA and depressed blood glucose levels, which are similar to those observed with exercise training. When animals are acutely exercised to exhaustion, however, differences appear, including a reduced rise in plasma FFA, which suggests that long-term diazepam treatment does influence exercise metabolism, possibly as a result of effects on the sympatho-adrenal system.

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was used to evaluate the inhibition of OA on fructosamine, α-dicarbonyl compounds, and fluorescence AGEs in the process of non-enzymatic glycosylation. Besides, glucose production, glycogen content, and ROS levels of IR HepG2 cells treated with OA were

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., Roelofsen, A. M., Copius, Peereboom-Stegeman, J. H., Van Noorden, C. J. (1988) Glycogen content of placenta and of fetal and maternal liver of cadmium-exposed rats. II: A quantitative histochemical study. Placenta 9 , 39

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Liver cells of the twenty-one day old rat embryo are isolated by a modified method and autophagy is studied in them by electron microscopic morphology and morphometry. Immediately after isolation or 2.5 h incubation in nutrient-free medium, embryonic hepatocytes contain high amount of glycogen and only very few autophagic vacuoles. In contrast, all glycogen is lost and 15% of the cytoplasmic volume is occupied by late autophagic vacuoles in hepatocytes after 18 h in the same medium. Presence of 3- methyladenine in the latter case inhibits both the loss of glycogen and the appearance of autophagic vac- uoles while enlarging the multivesicular body compartment. Our findings reveal major differences between isolated embryonic and adult hepatocytes concerning autophagy. Several types of autophagic vacuoles are described in the cell types of the erythropoietic cell lineage. This means that autophagy is an integral part of erythropoiesis not only in bone marrow, but also in embryonic liver that is investigat- ed here for the first time from this point of view. The presence of unclosed isolation membranes and the predominance of early autophagic vacuoles in reticulocytes indicates that the molecular machinery of segregation is still active in this functionally and structurally highly reduced cell type.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
B. Bojková
,
P. Orendáš
,
L. Friedmanová
,
M. Kassayová
,
I. Ďatelinka
,
E. Ahlersová
, and
I. Ahlers

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of prolonged melatonin administration on chosen metabolic and hormonal variables in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Melatonin was administered in tap water (4 μg/ml) daily from the 6th month of age. Rats were fed a standard type of diet ad libitum and were kept in a light regimen L:D - 12:12h. The experiment was terminated after 12 weeks of melatonin administration. Melatonin decreased body mass during the whole experiment in females and from the 42nd day of the experiment in males. Relative heart muscle weight in females and absolute/relative thymus weight in males were increased after melatonin administration. Melatonin decreased glycaemia, heart muscle glycogen concentration in females and liver glycogen concentration in both sexes. Serum insulin concentration in males was decreased; serum corticosterone concentration was increased in both males and females. Serum triacylglycerol and heart muscle cholesterol concentration in females were decreased, however in males serum and heart muscle cholesterol concentration was increased. Liver phospholipid concentration in females was decreased and heart muscle phospholipid concentration in males was increased. Melatonin increased malondialdehyde concentration in heart muscle in males and in liver in both sexes. Melatonin induced prominent sexdependent changes in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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Rumen-protected choline (RPC) was evaluated for effects on the lipid and glycogen content of the liver and metabolic variables in the blood plasma of dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein cows were allocated into two groups (RPC group with RPC supplementation and control group without RPC supplementation) 28 days before the expected calving. Cows were fed the experimental diet from 21 days before calving until day 60 of lactation. The diet of the RPC group was supplemented with 100 g/day of RPC from 21 days prepartum until calving and 200 g/day of RPC for 60 days postpartum, providing 25 and 50 g of choline, respectively. Liver samples were taken by percutaneous needle biopsy, then analysed for total lipid (TLl), triglyceride (TGl) and glycogen (GLYl) contents on days −21, +7, +35 and +60 relative to calving. Blood was collected on the same sampling days and 21 days after calving. Glucose, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), triglyceride (TGp), total cholesterol (TCh), urea, ammonia and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined from blood samples. The TLl and TGl contents were 25.0 ± 4.3 g and 25.3 ± 3.8 g per kg wet weight (mean ± SEM), respectively, lower in the RPC group than in the control animals. No significant differences were observed in the GLYl concentrations between the two groups. However, a lower TGl: GLYl ratio was shown in the liver of cows fed the RPC diet as compared to the controls. RPC supplementation decreased BHBA while increasing TGp concentrations were shown in the blood of cows fed the RPC diet, possibly as a consequence of improved lipoprotein synthesis in, and triglyceride excretion from, the liver, together with a reduced rate of ketogenesis.

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Winery wastewater treatment plants generally face severe nutrient deficiency, and therefore conventional technologies and supplementary nutrient dosing strategies may fail. The purpose of the paper is to show how traditional way of dosing N-source for marginal availability to nutrient deficient influents results in poorly settling activated sludge regardless of the application of aerated or non-aerated selectors. External N-source calculated for marginal availability resulted in nutrient deficiency due to the relatively high yield experienced (0.7 g biomass COD/g substrate COD). In the fully aerated system with overall N-deficiency, rapidly increasing overproduction of extracellular polysaccharide was experienced, leading to SVI (Sludge Volume Index) values up to 600 cm3 g−1. In the system with the non-aerated selector, initial nutrient deficiency could only be detected in the second reactor. Since neither overgrowth of floc-forming GAOs (Glycogen Accumulating Organisms) nor denitrification could be experienced, the non-aerated reactor operated as low-DO (Dissolved Oxygen) basin, attributing to the drastic overgrowth of filamentous bacteria leading to SVI values >1000 cm3 g−1. Since dosing external N-source for marginal availability is likely to cause severe biomass separability problems in activated sludge winery wastewater treatment, either pronounced N-overdosing and pre-denitrification or severe nutrient deficiency and GAO cultivation can rather be recommended.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Joanna Klećkowska-Nawrot
,
Karolina Goździewska-Harłajczuk
,
Artur Kowalczyk
,
Ewa Łukaszewicz
, and
Renata Nowaczyk

This study describes the macroscopic anatomy and the microscopic and ultrastructural features of the Harderian gland and lacrimal gland of the Capercaillies. It was conducted both on adult male and female Capercaillies. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, azan trichrome, modified Mallory’s trichrome, methyl green-pyronin Y, periodic acid-Schiff, alcian blue pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin and Hale’s dialysed iron. The morphometric study of the Harderian and lacrimal glands indicated that they are both larger in male than in female Capercaillies. The histological analysis showed that the HG has a multilobar tubulo-alveolar structure with numerous lymphocytes and plasma cells. The LG has a multilobar tubulo-acinar structure without lymphocytes and plasma cells. The periodic acid-Schiff staining and alcian blue pH 2.5 staining demonstrated a mild positive reaction in the epithelial cells of the Harderian gland and weak positive reaction in the lacrimal gland. The HDI staining detected the presence of carboxylated acid mucopolysaccharides in the Harderian and lacrimal glands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of two types of secretory vesicles in the cytoplasm of both studied glands. It also showed that lipid droplets and glycogen granules were more abundant in the Harderian gland than in the lacrimal gland of this species.

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