Authors:G. E. Milkereit, S. S. H. Gerber, Karin Jankowski, A. Terjung, R. R. Schmidt, and V. Vill
A set of Y-shaped and Siamese-twin shaped carbohydrate based glycolipids was investigated using polarising microscopy. The structure was changed from the normal type (1 head, two chains) to complex inverted structures (2 heads outside 1 to 3 chains in the middle part). The carbohydrate headgroup was changed from mono- to disaccharide; also the alkyl chain length was varied systematically. The compounds displayed different thermotropic mesophases (Smectic A phases, columnar phases and cubic phases) depending on the type of carbohydrate headgroup and the alkyl chain length.
Authors:V. M. Garamus, G. E. Milkereit, Regine Willumeit, and V. Vill
In this work, we investigated the lyotropic aggregation behaviour in dilute solutions of two synthetic glycolipids with same alkyl chain. The chemical structure of the carbohydrate headgroups is similar, nevertheless as reported the thermotropic phase behaviour is different. We found that the slightly tilted compound showing a complex thermotropic phase behaviour forms large aggregates with substructure already in dilute solutions and the significantly tilted compound with its simple thermotropic phase behaviour forms small spherical micelles near the CMC.
The lipid profiles of brain from 10- and 18-day-old chick embryo, 1-day-old chick, and adult chicken as well as of full-term fetus rat, 21-day-old male, young adult male, and pregnant female rats were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and densitometry. The emphasis was on the major glycolipids of brain during myelination (i.e., galactocyl diglyceride (GDG) normal fatty acid and hydroxyl fatty acid ceramide monohexosides (n-CMH, h-CMH, respectively)), and sulfatides (S) as well as the choline lipids sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidyl choline (PC) and the two species of phosphatidyl ethanolamine plasmalogen (PE1 and PE2).Ten-day-old chick embryo brain revealed a low concentration of glycolipids, which increased gradually during development, and reached the highest level in the adult chicken brain. Rat brain did not begin to show the presence of these glycolipids until 21 days old. In addition, PE (i.e., PE1 and PE2) was shown to be the only alkenyle phospholipid in all samples analyzed. PE2 was shown to correlate with the myelination process. PC and SM were also present. SM concentration was very low in 1-day-old chick and 21-day-old rat brains and increased gradually, reaching its highest level in the adult chicken and rat brains.
Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents cause undefined fibrosis in kidneys and skin damage. Magnetic resonance microimaging of rat skin and kidney was used first time to identify the physical factors modulating the gadolinium Omniscan®-induced fibrosis by protein targeting. A 500-MHz MR imaging was done to visualize fibrosis in gadolinium-treated animals. Cationic superparamagnetic iron oxide magnetoferritin (SPIOM) was injected in rat to target basement membrane (in rat kidney and different skin structures including epidermis glycolipids and dermis proteins. After MR imaging, excised rat skin and kidneys tissues were imaged by ex vivo 900 MHz MR microimaging to confirm renal fibrosis and skin epidermis thickening. The proton density-weighted images visualized micro details of skin structures and nephron territories while T2-weighted images showed better contrast of tissue structures in both skin and kidney. The gadolinium further enhanced the image contrast and targeted the proteins in renal basement membrane and viable proteins in epidermis. SPIOM enhanced the tissue contrast due to dephasing effect caused by SPIOM on structural changes in nephron and epidermis. Conclusion: Tissue membrane protein and chelate ligand group binding with gadolinium biophysical interaction at molecular level may develop fibrosis. SPIOM injection improved the dephased image contrast of different structures in both skin and nephrons. The epidermis thickening and nephrofibrosis changes may be associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis or fibrosing dermatopathy.
Authors:Susan Szathmáry, Nandani Rajapakse, Ibolya Székely, E. Pitlik, Judit Bíró, Noémi Erdei, and L. Stipkovits
., Barile, M. F., Ginsburg, V. and Roberts, D. D. (1989): Adhesion of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to sulfated glycolipids and inhibition by dextran sulfate. J. Biol. Chem. 264, 9283-9288.
Adhesion of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to sulfated
Authors:Sophie Ermidou-Pollet, H. Nounopoulos, N. Sdougas, M. Szilágyi, and S. Pollet
. L., Sarlieve, J. L., Nussbaum, D., Mandel, P. (1972) Quantitative thin-layer chromatography of glycolipids in animal tissues. Clin. Chim. Acta 38 , 147-153.
Quantitative thin-layer chromatography of glycolipids in animal