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Drought and high temperature are two major factors limiting crop production. The two stresses occur together in many regions of the world but they usually are investigated separately. Irrespective of the genotype, growth or treatment conditions, grain growth was severely reduced when wheat plants were exposed to high temperature, drought and combination of both the stresses during endosperm cell division. The extent of thermal as well as drought induced disruption of grain development, however was dependent on genotype. This structural data support the hypothesis that high temperature and drought during endosperm cell division reduces grain sink potential and subsequently mature grain mass, mainly by disrupting cell divisions in peripheral and central endosperm and thus reducing endosperm length and breadth to a considerable extent. The interaction of high temperature and drought stresses resulted in stronger reduction of pericarp thickness and endosperm size than either stress alone.

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), the bran fragments in the large particles, like pericarp, and aleurone (2,000–2,100 µm) ( Fistes & Tanovic, 2006; Galindez-Najera et al., 2016 ). During our experiment two different grain structured varieties of wheat (soft and hard) were milled in

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In this study, the effects of 18 different additive formulas constituted with xanthan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) gums (hydrocolloids) were examined in the manufacture of corn starch based gluten-free bread. The additives used as alone or in combinations in the bread manufacture. It was also added with mono- and diglyceride based gel preparations and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides for improving glutenfree bread characteristics. The volumes and softness of the breads have been measured as maximum when HPMC was used alone in increasing order from 1 to 2%. While HPMC gum improved the volume and softness of bread more than Xanthan gum, Xanthan gum improved the grain structure of crumb more than HPMC. In general, these hydrocolloids gave a good quality of bread in terms of moisture content, grain structure and Neumann baking coefficient values, when they were used with combinations rather than being used individually. Addition of surfactant to all combinations always enhanced the grain structure of bread. In contrast, it either worsened or did not change the volume and softness of the bread.

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In this work the influence of alumo-chrome catalyst on the properties and structure of anhydrite binder by means of mechanical tests, X-ray phase analysis and raster electron microscopy was investigated. Taking into account the high dispersity in the presence of alumina in the amorphous state, the catalyst intensifies the solidification of anhydrite composition increasing the mechanical strength by 80–100%. The catalyst also influences on the morphology and size of gypsum crystals. The addition of the catalyst in the range of 2–5% leads to the formation compact fine-grained structure, it allows increasing the mechanical properties of anhydrite binder.

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Abstract  

natCd electrodeposition on a copper substrate was investigated for production of 111In radionuclide. The electrodeposition experiments were carried out by alkaline plating baths. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature, and current density are also optimized. The current efficiency was measured at different current densities. The optimum conditions of the cadmium electrodeposition were as follows: 2.35 g L−1 cadmium, pH = 13, DC current density of ca 4.27 mA cm−2 at 25 °C temperature with 62.48 μm thickness. SEM photomicrographs demonstrated fine-grained structure of the deposit obtained from the optimum bath.

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Abstract  

The electroplating of zinc is carried out in an alkaline cyanide bath. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature, and current density and amount of the electrolyte components are optimized. The optimum conditions of the electrodeposition of zinc were as follows: 2.7 g L−1 ZnO, 7.1 g L−1 KCN, 11.1 g L−1 KOH, pH = 13–14, DC current density of ca 8.55 mA cm−2 at 40–50 °C temperature with 89% current efficiency. SEM photomicrographs revealed fine-grained structure of the deposit from the bath.

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Abstract  

This study analyzes the pattern of transnational linkages of Indian science in eleven scientific fields (Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Earth & Space Science, Agriculture, Clinical Medicine, Biomedical Research, Engineering & Technology, Computer Science, and Materials Science) during the five-year period: 1990–1994. The following indicators are constructed to examine inter-field and inter-country differences in India’s transnational linkages: Internationalization index, Cooperation index, Cooperation extensiveness index and Affinity index. A four-category typology is proposed to classify the fields according to their propensities for attracting bilateral and multilateral cooperation with foreign countries. The structure of multidimensional system of relationships between India’s thirty-five most significant partner countries and eleven scientific fields is analyzed through correspondence analysis. A series of correspondence analyses are carried out on subsets of the multidimensional data to reveal the fine-grained structure of India’s cooperation links in clusters of specific fields and with clusters of specific countries.

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Abstract  

Natural iron electrodeposition on copper substrate was studied with the aim of production of cobalt-55 radionuclide. 55Co seems well suited for PET imaging due to its high abundance of positron decay (I β+ = 76%), its relatively long half-life (T 1/2 = 17.5 h) and its mean positron energy (E avg = 570 keV). The electrodeposition experiments were carried out by chloride bath. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature, current density and amount of the electrolyte components are also optimized. The optimum conditions of the iron electrodeposition were follows: 8 g/L FeCl2, 2 g/L CaCl2, pH = 1, DC current density of 21.3 A/dm2 with a bath temperature of 75 °C temperature and 20% current efficiency. SEM photomicrographs demonstrated fine-grained structure of the deposit obtained from the optimum bath. The electroplated iron-target was irradiated with 29.5 MeV protons at current of 100 μA for 1 h and yields of about 31.25 MBq/μAh were experimentally obtained.

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Abstract  

Hexanitrostilbene (HNS), is added to trinitrotoluene (TNT), in order to improve the grain structure of cast munitions. The formation and composition of the nucleant material has been investigated by thermal methods using mixtures of HNS and TNT, with composition in the range 0.5%, the normal casting level, to 50% w/w HNS to TNT. These were cycled between ambient and upper temperatures in the range 160 to 235°C. Endotherms in the DSC traces, due to nucleant decomposition, have been observed in situ without the need for separation and purification. DSC enthalpy measurements, before and after thermal decomposition, were used to determine the composition of separated nucleant. Nucleant regeneration after decomposition, was investigated by thermal methods. Nucleant could not be recrystallised from solvents. Results have been interpreted on the basis of the formation of a, solid solution of TNT in HNS, rather than a complex of formula TNT2HNS.

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, D.S.C. , Boddington , H.J. 1998 . Effects of frost during grain filling on wheat yield and grain structure . N.Z.J. Crop Hortic. Sci. 26 : 279 – 290 . Frederiks , T

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