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40 1559 1564 Sudaric, A., M. Vrataric, R. Sudar, T. Duvnjak (2004): Genetic advance in yield components, grain yield and grain quality of soybean OS

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The aim of the project was to determine the grain quality, technological properties and baking values of ‘Perenne’ (registered perennial rye cultivar), obtained through the interspecific crossing of Secale cereale L. and S. montanum Guss., and to compare with annual rye varieties. The crude protein content of ‘Perenne’ grains was higher (‘Perenne’: 18%, annual varieties: 12%) and contained more crude fibre, crude fat and ash than the annual varieties. Regarding the quantity and composition of amino acids, ‘Perenne’ showed values between S. montanum (high amino acid content) and S. cereale (lower amino acid content). While its farinograph softening value was inferior to those of the annual varieties, its flour mixed with wheat flour outperformed them. In terms of other properties (falling number, farinograph water absorption capacity, baking test) of ‘Perenne’ flour, whether in mixtures or in pure form, was not left behind the annual varieties. Perennial rye can also be used for bread making since it has great grain composition.

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. 2002. Genetic trends in winter wheat grain quality with dual-purpose and grain-only management systems. Crop Sci. 42 :1112–1116. Rayas-Duarte P. Genetic trends in winter wheat grain

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Field experiments were conducted over 3 years to assess the effects of fungicides (F) containing strobilurins (alone and in mixture with morpholine, triazoles) and triazoles (epoxiconazole or propiconazole) on winter wheat ‘Zentos’ grain quality, incidence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in the field, grain contamination with fungi and mycotoxins. The effect of strobilurins and triazoles on the parameters tested was more dependent on the weather conditions of the growing season than on the F applied. The incidence of FHB was low in 2002 and 2003, but high in 2004. Averaged data suggest that strobilurin treatments decreased the level of FHB. In 2002, grain contamination with fungi was lower than in 2003 and 2004. The data on the impact of fungicides on post-harvest grain infection with Fusarium spp. and contamination with mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 were controversial. The fungicides only insignificantly affected protein and gluten concentration in grain, as well as sedimentation and falling number. All grain quality components were especially dependent on the year (significant at P<0.01). However, fungicide application significantly, at P<0.01, increased grain protein and gluten yields: they were higher for the strobilurin-treated plots (with a small exception) than for the untreated and those treated with propiconazole.

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The effect of spraying speed (5, 8.5 or 12 km/h) on deposition quality of fungicide on a winter wheat head, yield, grain quality, occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and deoxynivalenol (DON) content in grains was investigated in 2011 and 2012. Asymmetric double flat fan air-injector nozzles were used in the trial at a spraying pressure of 5.0 bars. A prothiconazole + tebuconazole fungicide mixture was used for spraying. An increase of spraying speed significantly lowered coverage values at the front and rear parts of a wheat head. At all three spraying speeds, the rear part of a wheat head reached a better coverage value. The effect of spraying speed was significant in 2011, when the 5 km/h spraying speed generated a significantly higher grain yield and a significantly higher thousand-grain weight in comparison with the other treatments. In both trial years, the lowest grain yield occurred on the unsprayed control. In 2011 and 2012, the latter also reached the lowest hectolitre weight and thousand-grain weight. In both trial years, the unsprayed control had a significantly higher DONcontent than the other treatments. In 2012, the DONcontent on the unsprayed control exceeded the allowed maximum level. The spraying speed did not affect the DON content in the grains. The effect of spraying speed was also noted in the FHB incidence. A significantly lower FHB incidence occurred at the 5 and 8.5 km/h spraying speeds.

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. Effect of timing of N application on the grain yield and grain quality of spring-sown malting barley. Irish J. Agric. and Food Res. 34 :25–31. Conry M.J. Effect of timing of N

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Masauskiene, A., Paplauskiene, V., Leistrumaite, A. 2001. The effect of cultivar on the variation of spring wheat grain quality and yield and correlation among these indicators. Zemdirbyste, Mokslo-Darbai. 73 :194

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. Naeem , H.A. , Paulon , D. , Irmak , S. , MacRitchie , F. 2012 . Developmental and environmental effects on the assembly of glutenin polymers and the impact on grain quality of wheat . J. Cereal Sci. 56 : 51 – 57

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yield and grain quality. Cereal Res. Commun. , 34 , 669–672. Sikora S. Contribution of breeding to increasing soybean grain yield and grain quality

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The objective of the present investigation was to examine the relationships between agronomical behavior and grain quality along ten cycles of a recurrent selection program performed under rainfed condition. Twenty-four lines, four for each one of the 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 cycles of recurrent selection, were evaluated for two consecutive years (2011 and 2012). The experimental lines were evaluated under conventional (CT) and no tillage (NT) systems. Grain yield and grain weight were determined and harvest index and grain number estimated. Flour protein content, sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation (IS-SDS) and lactic acid SRC (LASRC) were considered as end-use quality predictive tests. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to measure the relationships among yield, its components and grain quality parameters. Within the context of CT, flour protein content was negatively associated with all the agronomic variables. The IS-SDS has a negative association with the grain weight; meanwhile, LASRC associated positively with all the agronomic variables. When wheat was grown in NT, the relationship between IS-SDS and harvest index, like LASRC with all agronomic traits, was positive. Confining the discussion to the CT results, after ten cycles of recurrent selection the highest grain yield achieved was accompanied by a decrease in protein percentage. However, the decrease in the percentage of protein in more advanced selection cycles was offset by an improvement of its quality.

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