Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 15 items for :

  • "grammaticalisation" x
  • All content x
Clear All

Grammaticalisation is an umbrella term for a set of partly unrelated processes that share a common result, namely the emergence of grammatical units. Although the Turkic languages represent a relatively homogeneous family of closely related languages, they are highly variegated in terms of how they express modal categories. The multitude of expressions stems from a restricted set of developments that can be empirically documented. This paper investigates heterogeneous specimens of expressions of modality in the Turkic languages and identifies the mechanisms that underlie the diachronic and synchronic variation that can be observed in Turkic modal constructions.

Restricted access

This paper explores Komi-Zyryan compound verbs. A small class of verbs can be formally recognised in posterior constituents of compound verbs, and compounds involving each of these verbs exhibit semantic and grammatical properties characteristic of their posterior constituents. On the other hand, the individual compound verbs are semantically non-compositional. The posterior constituents cannot be taken to be form-meaning complexes, i.e., morphemes. Therefore, some other, non-morpheme-based linguistic analysis is needed. This is a peculiar case of grammaticalisation where the result is not a grammatical morpheme.

Full access

The aim of this paper is to investigate the historical process whereby preverbs came into being in Hungarian: to shed light on the reason why certain adverbial elements, used autonomously at first, were subsequently degraded into items of a bound grammatical category. It will be seen that that path is anything but straight: various factors may be involved in adverbial modifiers turning into preverbs, diverse “access roads” may lead to the same main road (this is also part of the reason why a number of items in the present-day stock of Hungarian preverbs are related to several parts of speech, e.g., to adverbs and to postpositions, at the same time). The second part of the paper tries to answer the questions why the stock of preverbs is presented in a heterogeneous manner in certain grammars of Hungarian, what role subjective criteria play in classifications, and how reliable the criterion of productivity is as a general guiding principle.

Full access

The aim of this paper is to present the most salient characteristics of Permian vowel ~ zero alternations and to analyse them in terms  of grammaticalisation. The term `grammaticalisation' will be used here in a non-traditional sense. When we investigate grammaticalisation, it is not merely individual linguistic units (having turned into grammatical ones), but also relationships between linguistic units that are to be taken into consideration. If, for instance, a phonological relationship that originally obtained between certain forms and triggered the application of some automatic process turns into a non-automatic alternation that distinguishes linguistic units from one another, this is just as much an instance of grammaticalisation as the well-known cases in which an originally lexical item turns into a grammatical one. This hypothesis will be substantiated in this paper with the help of some considerations concerning Permian vowel ~ zero alternations.

Full access

This article presents two grammaticalization types of separable perfective particles in Estonian. The bounding particle (BP) use of the   semantically most bleached Estonian separable verbal particle ära is demonstrated to display a distinct status in the grammaticalization of aspect. The special character of the BP is illustrated by contrasting the BP ära, on the one hand, with the well-established use of the particle with the same form (ära) and, on the other hand, several other perfective particles, which are referred to here as instances of completive particles (CP). The study of differences brings out the following novel facts about the BP. The particle occurs only in context-dependent, agentive sentences that typically describe the achievement of planned or foreseen endpoints of events. The perfective sentences with the BP contain primarily activity verbs; however, verbs in such sentences can belong to all aspectual classes, and the combinations are transparent. The occurrence of an argument that would serve as a “measure” for the event is thereby optional. The evidence that the BP and verb combinations do not allow for the derivation of adjectives (participles) also demonstrates the difference between the principles of combining a verb and a BP as opposed to a CP.

Full access

Gegenstand der folgenden Arbeit ist die historische Entwicklung der nganasanischen Demonstrativa. Bekanntlich unterliegt die Kategorie der Demonstrativa (der Raum-, Zeit-, und Objektdeixeis) spezifischen Veränderungen, die durch ihre innere (funktional-semantische) und äussere (syntaktische) Struktur zu erklären sind. Schon seit den Anfängen der historischen Sprachwissenschaft hat man die besondere Rolle der pronominalen Kategorie insgesamt und insbesondere der Demonstrativa bei der Entstehung der primären Kasussuffixe erkannt, im Laufe einer langjährigen Forschungsgeschichte diente das Prinzip als Grundlage zahlreicher Rekonstruktionen. Eine systematische Zusammenfassung typischer Entwicklungslinien (Grammatikalisierungsketten) ist letztlich im Rahmen der Grammatikalisierungsforschung unternommen worden. Die Zielsetzungen dieses Beitrags ist zweierlei: Einerseits werden Erkenntnisse der Grammatikalisierungsforschung auf das Nganasanische angewandt. (Dabei dient das Nganasanische weniger als Musterbeispiel für verschiedene Grammatikalisierungsketten, eher als mögliches Anwendungsfeld.) Als Ergebnis wird die Entwicklungslinie Ppron3Sg siti ≯ Demonstrativ falsifiziert und einige zusätzliche Entwicklungslinien postuliert, so z. B. die der modalen Verwendungen der Demonstrativa, die in der uralistischen Literatur bislang wenig Beachtung fanden. Ferner werden terminologische Inkonsequenzen der Fachliteratur bei der Beschreibung einzelner Entwicklungslinien als Grammatikalisierung aufgezeigt.

Full access

This paper is concerned with the origins and the function of the objective verbal conjugation especially in Hungarian but with an eye to general typology and Uralic. Previous attempts at solving problems associated with it are given a critical survey. The author argues that since objective conjugation is neither specific to Hungarian nor to its relatives, whether close or distant, but is found in various language families and language types all over the world, one should seek explanations in universal tendencies rather than giving ad hoc accounts. The universal tendency of medialisation is pointed out here-especially in the first and second persons of the paradigm-, which differentiated what is now called the (unmarked) general or indefinite conjugation from the original unitary conjugation. It is here proposed that what now functions as the objective conjugation results historically from a reinterpretation of the original paradigm as in contrast with the medial (then general) paradigm. This explains the curious fact that although the objective paradigm is now seen as the new marked member of the opposition, it is this paradigm that preserves the personal endings going back to the ancestral pronouns. The author also argues that the emergence of an objective conjugation in those Uralic languages that have one represents independent developments, though the preconditions for its evolution may have been there in Proto-Uralic in the form of object syntagms.

Full access

The Dede Qorqud Oġuznameleri are a collection of heroic stories in a Middle Oghuz variety with Eastern Anatolian linguistic features that distinguish this text pronouncedly from contemporaneous texts in Ottoman Turkish sensu proprio. This contribution examines the expressions of modality attested in this text. It establishes an inventory of the morphological and morpho-syntactic items expressing modal notions such as event modality, epistemic modality and the moods, and addresses diachronic as well as typological issues. All types of modal expressions found in the text are illustrated by examples.

Restricted access

Absztrakt

A szibériai vogul és osztják kultúrától idegen fogalmakat (foglalkozások, események, cselekvések stb.) a bibliafordítók általában körülírják, magyarázzák, pl. vogul сaккон тотнэ хумыт ‘írástudók’ (tkp. ‘törvény hozó férfiak’), osztják закона утăлтăты ёх ‘írástudók’ (tkp. ‘írás tudó nép’). A fordításokban leginkább a melléknévi igenevek játszanak szerepet. A folyamatos melléknévi igenév ugyanis önmagában (elliptikusan) nem fejezi ki a személyt, ezért a cselekvést végrehajtó személyek kifejezésére az igenév után a vogul хoтпа ‘valaki, személy’, хум, oйка ‘férfi, bácsi’, osztják хoят ‘ember’, ху ‘férfi’, ill. ёх ‘emberek’ jelentésű szót használják; pl. vogul ханисьтан хум, osztják утăлтăты ху ‘tanító’ (tkp. ‘tanító férfi’). A főnév, melléknév vagy participium után a fogalom alapjelentésétől függő segédszót használnak: pl. vogul вaрмаль ‘valami, dolog’, ут ‘dolog, való’ vagy нак ‘eset, történet’, osztják вер, oт ‘dolog, tárgy’. Pl. vogul нoх-ялтум нак, osztják нoх питaм вер ‘feltámadás’ (tkp. ‘feltámadott esemény’). Várható, hogy ezek az “üres” szavak agglutinálódnak vagy egy névszóhoz -ság/-ség, vagy egy participiumhoz -ás/-és jelentésben. A grammatikalizáció leginkább a vogul ут, ill. osztják esetében indult el. A többi finnugor nyelvben is ilyen “kiüresedett” szavak váltak szuffixummá, tehát grammatizálódtak. Megállapítható, hogy a körülírás a grammatikalizáció kiinduló pontja. Ezekből a – főleg participiumos – szerkezetekből vagy ellipszissel, vagy önálló szavak agglutinálódásával keletkezhetnek rövidebb kifejezések. Az obi-ugor nyelvekben jelenleg ez a folyamat elkezdődött.

Restricted access

Robert, Stéphanie 2000. Le verbe wolof ou la grammaticalisation du focus. In: Bernard Caron (ed.): Topicalisation et focalisation dans les langues africaines, 229–267. Peeters, Louvain/Paris. Robert S

Full access