From the very beginning of the magnetotelluric (MT) studies two notions have been coupled to each other: the graphite as one of the causes of strong conductivity anomalies and tectonics. The graphitic formations of very low resistivity (< 10-1 Wm) are accumulated in the shear zones, thrust sheets, detachment horizon etc.\ and by this way they indicate the tectonics/paleotectonics which may not be indicated by other geophysical method so definitely. The author firstly surveys the manifestation of this phenomenon in case histories of the literature, then illustrates it by own very detailed study carried out on the Transdanubian crustal conductivity anomaly (TCA). The material of the conductor and their possible relation to the seismicity of the area will also be demonstrated by the TCA anomaly. In the closing chapters the origin of the graphite and its accumulation in the shear zones is discussed including the role of the (geothermal) water.
Authors:A. Ádám, Attila Novák, L. Szarka, and V. Wesztergom
Firstly the authors give an overview on the geological, geophysical and tectonical features of the Diósjenő dislocation belt (or zone, according to some authors) around the river Ipoly near the Hungarian-Slovak border among great structural units: Vepor, Gemericum and formations of the Mid Hungarian Mts. The longest magnetic anomaly of the Pannonian Basin lies in this belt. It is assumed that it is due to ultrabasic magmatite of greenschist facies. The near-surface geoelectric soundings did not find any conductivity increase near Diósjenő (western part of the zone), but there are graphitic micaschists in the boreholes around Szécsény. There is some earthquake activitiy in the region with hypothetical depth of 7-8 km. Two deep magnetotelluric (MT) profiles cross the dislocation zone. The resistivity distribution from the surface to the conductive asthenosphere along these profiles was obtained by using instruments, operating in two different period ranges. After processing the measured data by 1D/2D inversion, it became obvious that the dislocation zone includes electrically conducting roots at a depth of 7-11 km. This result hints at the presence of fluid in the broken rocks having increased porosity in the dislocation zone. Another component that can increase the conductivity could be the graphite (carbon) originating from the Paleozoic crystalline rocks of the Gemericum (or Vepor). The ductile phase (fluid/graphite) observed by high conductivity in the centre of the dislocation zone can play an important role in the generation of the earthquakes according to the most recent statements of the international literature.