While Tolstoy’s ideological and religious turn is often mentioned in the special literature, the turn in his poetics is hardly ever. The present study focuses on the latter phenomenon. After the turn in his ideology and poetics, Tolstoy searched for such new forms to express his moral and philosophical thoughts as the legend, the apologue, the parable, the hagiography and the confession, etc. He elaborated such a comprehensive form of the short story which approaches the novelette in its length but condenses the conflict in a dramatic manner at the same time. The works to be analyzed here are the following: What Men Live By?, How Much Land Does a Man Need?, Father Sergey, Master and Man, Posthumous Papers of the Elder Fedor Kuzmich, The False Coupon. It is possible to understand the deeper meaning of these parables only if one is able to discover the archetypal mythemes in the deep structure of the concrete text, and trace them back to their primal form, which universalizes the mystery of resurrection for the receiver. The conclusion of this paper is that Tolstoy considered self-improvement a universal law, with the help of which man can learn truth and transform it into living practice: aletheia turns into ethos.
Maximos Kausokalyves, the fourteenth century Athonite monk, is celebrated as one of the most important Saints related to the Hesychast movement in Byzantium. Born in 1270/80, he spent most of his life on Mount Athos as an ascete in huts, which he used to burn before he moved from one place to another, thus the name, Kausokalyves. Through the collation of his life, composed by four of St Maximo’s contemporaries, we get very important information about his life and acts, during a very critical period marked by political and doctrinal conflicts.
The paper shows on the example of Vājīd, a poet once popular but neglected in colonial and nationalist historiography, that rich treasures of Indian literature still await unearthing and philological work. The extraordinary popularity of Vājīd (fl. 1600) in Hindi before the advent of western modernism is shown by the high number of manuscripts containing his works and by the fact that he was considered to be the best exponent of the poetic form arilla. Hardly anything of his more than hundred and twenty works is published today and he is scarcely mentioned in modern literary histories. The paper examines early sectarian and secular sources on Vājīd’s life, compares them with Vājīd’s poetry and with early manuscript material, follows up his modern reception and presents the range of this poet’s works.
A tanulmány az Athós-hegyi Iviron 463-as jelzetű kétnyelvű (ógörög-ófrancia) bizánci kézirat különféle rétegeinek (ógörög főszöveg, miniatúrák, lapszélen szereplő ófrancia fordítás, ófrancia címsorok) összefüggéseit vizsgálja újabb megközelítésből, korábban nem vizsgált szempontok bevonásával: a miniatúrák és az ófrancia szövegben szereplő piros tintával kiemelt címsorok közötti kapcsolat feltárásával. A tanulmány a Barlám-regény görög változatait megőrző kódexek – ivironi kézirat szempontjából fontos – magyarázó címeit is áttekinti, a kéziratok közötti közös elemeket vizsgálja. Az elemzés az ivironi kódex készítésének körülményeivel kapcsolatban újabb fontos összefüggésekre világít rá.
The study examines the relations between diﬀerent aspects (Ancient Greek main text, miniatures, Old French translation on the margins, Old French headlines) of the manuscript Iviron № 463, which is a bilingual (Ancient Greek-Old French) Byzantine manuscript kept on Mount Athos, from a new perspective by including formerly not investigated viewpoints: by exploring the relationship between the miniatures and the headlines that are highlighted by red ink in the Old French text. The study also mentions the explanatory inscriptions in codices that preserved the Greek versions of the Barlaam-romance and are relevant in connection with the Iviron manuscript, furthermore, it investigates the common features of the manuscripts. The analysis reveals new important relations regarding the circumstances of the creation of codex Iviron.
The present paper deals with the issue of defining functional tools able to help modern historians understand the genesis and evolution of historiography in 14th-century Anatolia. It emphasises the indistinct lines between hagiographies and sagas and between leader-centred and popular texts, while making a strong case for the key role played by the necessity of creating entertainment. Having become bestsellers exponentially raised the chances of these creations to survive across centuries. Most of the texts we use today as historical sources were designed to entertain their consumers. Moralising or ideologically manipulating them came only in the second or third place.
The CANTUS database provides indices of chant manuscripts for the Office in both electronic and printed formats. The database was developed in the 1980s at the Catholic University of America under the leadership of Ruth Steiner. The goals and basic structure of the project remain true to the vision of its founder; however, since the move to Canada there have been some changes in format and presentation of the data. This progress report is the first official presentation of these alterations. Seventy-one liturgical books have been indexed. The centre of distribution is the project's website at http://publish.uwo.ca/~cantus/. The database consists of indices that indicate the actual contents of individual sources. The project has proven useful in a variety of fields including liturgical chant, early music, medieval liturgy, hagiography, and ecclesiastical history.
The article aims at interpreting the chronicle-texts about Princess Olga. These texts served as basis for various approaches to the figure of Olga, out of which the author shows the "hagiographic", "church-historical", "historical", "textological", "mythic" and some other variants. All of them are characterized by a certain reduction of the chronicle-text, restricted, as a consequence, to aspects fitting in with the given interpretation. On the other hand, these texts are completed and amplified by the critics. The paper elaborates on another possible interpretation based on the reading of the chronicle text as a whole and on the revealing of the internal logic of the chronicle narrative. In the final part an attempt is made to arrive at an understanding of Olga refusing the traditional setting "Olga, the pagan" against "Olga, the Christian". According to this interpretation the figure of Olga relies on the trans-formation of "pagan finesse" into "Christian wisdom".
Eucharistic references in the representations of saints constitute a relatively unexplored segment within the iconography of the Holy Sacrament. This article analyses a number of hagiographical compositions from the Late Gothic wall paintings of Transylvania, which seem to carry eucharistic connotations, either through explicit references to the Sacrament (in the form of a monstrance, a chalice or host-shaped bread) or through subtler allusions to the sacrificial Body of Christ present in the Eucharist. The fact that most of these images are located in the sanctuaries of churches and are typically associated with other, more straightforward eucharistic imagery suggests conscious choices on the part of the inventors of the iconographic programs in adapting the subject matter of the wall paintings to the function of the given liturgical space.
The main sociological, philosophical and historical approaches only ascribe a relative importance to the role of chance, error, or accident in scientific progress. The literature on this topic tends to be anecdotal, sometimes hagiographic and rarely systematic. The main goal of this paper is to introduce a new approach to the study of serendipity in scientific discovery. This new approach is based in the study of highly cited papers obtained from theCitation Classics feature ofCurrent Contents. This paper re-examines 205Citation Classics commentaries from the 400 most-cited papers in the recent history of science. Authors of 17Citation Classics commentaries (8.3%) mention some kind of serendipity in performing the research reported in the highly cited paper. Commentaries are classified and discussed in detail. In addition, I have examinated the original papers identified above. In 5 from the original highly cited papers authors explained or gave enough hints on the way the serendipitous discovery was done.
Spanish name-giving is still very traditional. A historic and a geographic influence can often be seen, but also the saint of birthday is important. The percentage of the Virgin's advocations is still today very high with females. Variation in men's names is limited to more or less ten different hagiographic ones. The influence of actors' names from television-series and films is notable, but comparably of little importance. Therefore the celebration of the namesday is still today more important than a birthday party. Specially the names which refer to the Virgin Mary are only understandable in the Spanish language. They cannot be translated. Interesting development of surnames as Sanchez, Gonzalez or others, which derive from names like Sancho, Gonzalo.