Organohalogen flame retardants, particularly brominated aromatics, are popular, effective, low cost, and widely used in the
plastics industry. However, an increasing concern about persistence in the environment and potential negative health effects
of these materials has generated intense interest in the development of alternatives. Ideally, these should have all the positive
attributes of the materials that will be replaced. In addition, it is desirable that the new materials be as “green” as possible,
e.g., based on renewable resources and be degradable to nontoxic products in the environment. A series of new, non-halogenated
flame retardants based on tartaric acid is being developed. Tartaric acid is a by-product of the wine industry and is readily
available locally on an annual basis (Michigan is the thirteenth largest producer of wine in the U.S.). It can be readily
converted to the corresponding diethyl ester. This ester may serve as the base for the development of a series of new, non-halogenated
flame-retarding agents. The presence of the reactive hydroxyl groups allows the introduction of a variety of phosphorus-containing
moieties. For example, treatment of diethyl tartrate with diphenylphosphinyl chloride generates diethyl 2,3-di(diphenylphosphinato)-1,4-butanedioate.
This material may serve as a monomer for the preparation of various phosphorus-containing polymers and oligomers via step-growth
transesterification. The thermal stability of this compound has been assessed by thermogravimetry.
forced to the solid phase during the thermal decomposition, and then the degradation could be pushed through a catalytic dehydration shown below [ 19 ]:
It is mentionable that halogenatedflame-retardants act in the vapor
during combustion. Accordingly, to develop non-halogenatedflame-retardant system becomes an attractive and emergent subject. Amongst non-halogenatedflameretardants, intumescent flame retardants (IFR) with particular char-yielding properties have been
phosphorated flame retardant combined with a gas phase action by a halogenatedflameretardant, or by a combination of flame retardant agents reinforcing the same mechanism, e.g. nano particles and phosphorated flame retardant agents, both acting in the
Among non-halogenatedflameretardants, intumescent flame retardant (IFR) is well known as a class of flame retardants in flammable polymers for some of their merits, such as low smoke, low toxicity, low corrosion
Authors:Francisco J. N. Maia, Viviane G. Ribeiro, Claudenilson S. Clemente, Diego Lomonaco, Pedro H. M. Vasconcelos, and Selma E. Mazzetto
Ravichandran , S , Bouldin , RM , Kumar , J , Nagarajan , R 2011 A renewable waste material for the synthesis of a novel non-halogenatedflameretardant polymer . J Clean Prod 19 : 454 – 458 10.1016/j.jclepro.2010
-retardant epoxy resins.
As an alternative to halogenatedflameretardants, which release toxic gases and corrosive smoke during combustion [ 4 ], silicon-containing flame retardants have been considered environmental friendly because it can reduce the