In the European Community, a new variety of an agricultural crop must be submitted for official trials for DUS (Distinctness, Uniformity, Stability) and VCU (Value for Cultivation and Use) before commercialization. The guidelines for these tests are summarized in the European directive 70/457/EU (1970), revised in 2002 (2002/53/EU). At present each EU country has a separate system for VCU testing. The EU directive stipulates that the VCU value must be satisfactory. The term “satisfactory” can be interpreted in different ways, so the level for admission for the same varieties may differ greatly between countries. For the market this can lead to a different assortment of varieties, adapted for the same ecological regions, but distributed over several countries. The different steps, from acceptance of a variety for trials, through the organization, the evaluation of parameters during the growing season, harvest modalities and data processing to the criteria for registration in Belgium are presented in the paper, followed by an analysis of the registration procedure in Belgium in comparison with other countries Thereafter, a proposal is given for harmonization and international cooperation in the VCU testing of varieties adapted to comparable ecological regions of neighbouring countries and with the same crop exploitation and use of the final product. For these varieties it is important that nearly the same rules are used for the registration of VCU value. The basis for successful international cooperation is a good knowledge of the national systems, searching for similarities and finding a solution for differences.
criteria: firstly, monophony as a folk music phenomenon showed striking differences to the harmonically based, often over-harmonized, polyphonic Western music; secondly, this music inspired their compositional processes. Monophony alone must have been a
In this essay is analysed the conceptual relation between the common commercial policy (CCP) of the European Union and the Hungarian foreign trade law, illustrating the dynamic extension of the CCP and the character of the competences in this field. Moreover the reader can get an insight into the so-called “rest competences”of the member states. In consequence of the nature and logic of the CCP was induced the mostly deregulatory modifications in the Hungarian legal order and the functional alteration of the foreign trade administration of Hungary. The author highlights this complex question consisting of the required modifications of the international conventional engagements and the harmonisation of Hungarian foreign trade material and procedural law in relation to the accession. He comes to conclusion that Hungarian accession to the EU might even be advantageous and it opens up a new prospect. Therefore the Hungarian foreign trade administration and diplomacy have to recognise the opportunity within the framework of the decision-making procedures of the Community as an initiative canalizing and enforcing the interests of the Hungarian producers and other market participants in all cases, when any kind of intervention is necessary in the relation of the third states.
A Data Centre (DC) as critical, energy-hungry infrastructure is dominated by two main driving forces: i) Availability and ii) Energy requirements. As a result of increasing energy costs, algorithms for optimising energy efficiency have been devised. However, these algorithms do not take availability into consideration.
This paper aims to present a combination of Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)/Reliability, Availability, Maintainability (RAM)/Energy Analysis as an innovative approach for harmonising availability and energy efficiency in DC. Based on various measures defined by FMECA/RAM, corresponding availability and reliability are modelled and calculated. In parallel, potential energy saving measures are included in RAM simulation to quantify their influence on the availability and reliability of DC infrastructure. As a result, a set of the most promising optimisation measures is selected.
Results show that some energy saving measures are highly correlated with availability. However, required data centre availability can be achieved with improved energy efficiency if the right set of optimisation measures is implemented. This approach guides DC managers to identify improvement potentials in terms of availability and energy efficiency, providing a reliable decision basis for future investments.
Authors:Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Bastien Perrot, Lucia Romo, Marc Valleur, David Magalon, Mélina Fatséas, Isabelle Chéreau-Boudet, Amandine Luquiens, JEU Group, Marie Grall-Bronnec and Jean-Benoit Hardouin
used must be adapted for each need. The objective is to harmonize screening of gambling problems in epidemiological surveys. Another objective is to compare the combinations tested to equivalents of the four major brief screening scales previously
The present essay deals with the question of harmonization of private law in Europe. The author gives an overview of the efforts of European states to unify private law, also underlining the results and shortcomings of these activities. He highlights the importance of Roman law in the unification of private law. The author mentions - inter alia - the role of Roman law in the development of the non-antique, "modern" natural law by referring to the term of Entzauberung der Welt by Max Weber. In addition, he analyzes the influence of the historical school of jurisprudence (Pandektistik) on the development of European private law. The study presents a short summary on the activity of the Academy of Pavia. The members of this Academy, among whom one may find experts of Roman law, Common Law and private law make efforts to codify the European law of contracts, which should be regarded as a great step towards a unified European private law.
Authors:Zs. Bakacsi, L. Kuti, L. Pásztor, J. Vatai, J. Szabó and T. Müller
An attempt is outlined for the compilation of an integrated and harmonized stratified soil physical database serving hydrologic modeling, as the basis of estimating soil hydraulic parameters in the unsaturated zone. Due to the appropriate spatial and thematic resolution and data processing status, the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS) and Hungarian Agrogeological Database (HAD) were chosen as pedological and agrogeological data sources for describing the soil physical properties in the unsaturated zone. The DKSIS contains legacy soil data (as hy, pH, salt, OM, CaCO
content, etc.) in finely stratified resolution (3–5 soil layers within 1.5–2.0 m), but lacks particle size data. HAD has a coarser stratification (8–15 layers within 8–10 m) with detailed particle size data. The five-cleft FAO texture classification can serve as an interface in their joint application. The particle size and hy data pairs from the existing Hungarian Soil Monitoring (TIM) network made it possible to define the relation between FAO texture class vs.
value, and based on the HYPRES database each FAO texture class can be characterized by typical Mualem-van Genuchten parameter sets (Wösten
et al., 1999). The compiled, harmonized database characterizes the distinguished soil and sediment layers – with a thickness of at least 10 cm – for a 690 km
large model area, describing their thickness and texture classes to the depth of the permanent groundwater level, in every single square kilometer cell of the model area. The compiled database is indispensable in the model simulation based analysis of regional water management problems like drought, flood and inland inundation.