Alternative Investment Management Association, AIMA’s Roadmap to Hedge Funds (4th edn, 2012 ), <https://www.aima.org/uploads/assets/uploaded/1225c1ba-f62b-439a-904d60564a441200.pdf> accessed 27 April 2017
Hedges and forest edges play a major role in providing nesting sites, food resources and shelter for birds in agricultural landscapes of western and central Europe. We investigated the response of farmland vs. woodland birds at two degrees of isolation of hedges from forest and to vegetation structure. We surveyed 200 m long sections of six forest edges, six hedges connected to forests and six isolated hedges. Species richness and abundance of farmland birds were higher in hedges than in forest edges, species richness and abundance of woodland birds were lower in hedges than in the forest edges. Species richness and abundance of both groups did not differ between connected and isolated hedges. Width and height of hedges and edges did not affect the species richness and abundance of either farmland or woodland birds. Furthermore, bird community composition differed between habitat types (hedge vs. forest edge) and also between hedge isolation levels (hedges connected to forest vs. isolated hedges). Based on our results, we emphasize the importance of hedges in conserving farmland birds and encourage policy makers to support hedge creation and maintenance with landscape-wide management strategies supporting a diverse hedge structure. Both connected and isolated hedges play an important role as they harbour different bird communities.
Virus symptoms were observed on Hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium) a well known plant in Hungary. In the literature there is no record of virus infection on Hedge bindweed, therefore, investigations were carried out to determine the causal agent. Sap from leaves showing virus-like symptoms was inoculated onto test plants inducing systemic infection on Nicotiana clevelandii, N. benthamiana, local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa and no infection on Datura stramonium and Cucumis sativus. Sap of N. clevelandii was examined by electron microscopy, showed the presence of long flexous particles. The biological and other properties of the virus have also been studied. Properties of particles in sap were as follows: TIP (thermal inactivation point): 78 °C, LIV (longevity in vitro): 26 days and DEP (dilution end point): log 10 minus 5. The size of coat protein is 36 kDa, and the genome consists of 7-8000 nt RNA. Double-stranded cDNA were produced using random hexanucleotide primers, cloned and sequenced. BLAST search of sequence databases revealed nucleotide sequence identity with carlaviruses. Further investigations are needed to decide whether the virus isolated from Hedge bindweed is a new carlavirus or a new strain of an existing carlavirus.
In our 3-year study ground beetle assemblages were investigated in habitats with different weed coverage and insecticide treatments in an apple orchard in Hungary. The aim of the study was to compare the effects on the activity density and composition of carabid assemblages of two insecticide disturbance levels; 1) applications of selective insecticides (integrated plant protection, IPM - representing lower degree of disturbance); 2) applications of broad-spectrum insecticides (conventional plant protection - representing a higher degree of disturbance). Particular attention was paid to the joint effects of weed patterns in the orchard and insecticide treatments as well as to the carabid assemblages in the two neighbouring semi-natural habitats. The less intense insecticide disturbance significantly increased the activity density and species richness of the apple orchard carabid assemblages. The mosaic habitats of the orchard herb layer, where higher and lower herb coverage alternate, altogether maintained more abundant and diverse carabid assemblages, than the habitat of closed, dense vegetation. The intra-orchard habitats with higher weed coverage enhanced the post-disturbance re-colonisation from the hedges, and therefore resulted carabid assemblages more similar to those of the semi-natural hedge vegetation. However, this re-colonisation was not great enough to compensate for the high mortality of the orchard carabid assemblage, which mostly consisted of species rare in the hedges. The high insecticide disturbance, affected the diversity of carabid assemblages in the intra-orchard habitats of high and low weed coverage differently, probably because of induced inter-habitat movement. Habitat attachment and post-disturbance recovery of Amara aenea, A. bifrons, A. fulva, A. ingenua, Broscus cephalotes, Calathus ambiguus, C. erratus, C. fuscipes, Cicindela hybrida, Harpalus albanicus, H. distinguendus, H. flavescens, H. froelichi, H. hirtipes, H. picipennis, H. rufipes, H. serripes, H. servus and H. tardus are also discussed.
This paper aims to examine gender differences in hedging in Chinese–English conference interpreting based on a transcribed parallel corpus. The point of departure was to test Holmes’s (1986, 1988a) claims that women do not necessarily employ more hedges than men but that women’s use of hedges tends to focus more on interpersonal relationships while men’s is more on propositional precision. Hyland’s (1996a, 1996b) model in which hedges were categorized into accuracy-oriented, speaker-oriented and audience-oriented, has been adapted for this end. Our finding shows that male interpreters actually employ more hedges than their female counterparts on the whole. In particular, their accuracy-oriented and speaker-oriented hedges exceed those of female interpreters, but not for audience-oriented ones. To find out whether these differences were caused by the source texts per se or by interpreters’ manipulation, we named four types of interpreting approach towards hedge items: direct transfer, indirect transfer, shift and addition. The former two types were identified as source text interference while the latter two as interpreters’ manipulation. The results indicate that male interpreters exceed female interpreters in terms of shift and addition cases in all three types of hedges. The findings of the present study contribute to a more profound understanding of gender difference in language mediation and also have implications for future interpreter training.
A power reactor fuel reprocessing plant is in operation at Tarapur. The various processes involved in the plant are: fuel rod cutting, dissolution in nitric acid, separation of plutonium, and handling of separated plutonium. The chemical form of plutonium could be nitrate, TBP complex, or oxide depending upon the nature of the process involved. Possible internal exposure to plant personnel occurs mainly by inhalation and occasionally through a contaminated wound. Occupational workers are regularly monitored for internal contamination by urinary excretion analysis as well as by in-vivo lung counting. This paper presents a follow up study of plutonium elimination in four inhalation exposure cases.
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to probe ordered structures and glassing behaviour for a range of agars containing < 25% w/w water. Most commercial agars are supplied in an ordered (double-helical) state, show an endothermic helix-to-coil transition above 100‡C at low-moisture, and require 90–100‡C for solubilisation in excess water. Agars dried from the coil (single-chain) state show no corresponding endothermic transitions and only require a minimum of 45‡C for aqueous dissolution. Evidence from helix-to-coil transition enthalpies, equilibrium water content as a function of relative humidity, and solid-state13C NMR spectroscopy suggests that water molecules are associated enthalpically with double-helical agar. Single-chain agar is apparently not obtained in a glassy state by direct drying from solution, but in common with double-helical forms, exhibits rubber/glass transition behaviour following heating (in a DSC pan) to 180‡C.
1 Introduction Corporate risk management theory has a very broad literature investigating the relevance and the optimal models of corporate hedging. While the perfect market assumption of Miller and Modigliani (1958) states that a firm's value is