Ahmed, I. 2004. Genetic Diversity for Agro-morphological and HighMolecularWeightGluteninSubunits in Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) Landraces. PhD dissertation. University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi
Aegilops sharonensis (Sharon goatgrass) is a valuable source of novel high molecular weight glutenin subunits, resistance to wheat rust, powdery mildew, and insect pests. In this study, we successfully hybridized Ae. sharonensis as the pollen parent to common wheat and obtained backcross derivatives. F1 intergeneric hybrids were verified using morphological observation and cytological and molecular analyses. The phenotypes of the hybrid plants were intermediate between Ae. sharonensis and common wheat. Observations of mitosis in root tip cells and meiosis in pollen mother cells revealed that the F1 hybrids possessed 28 chromosomes. Chromosome pairing at metaphase I of the pollen mother cells in the F1 hybrid plants was low, and the meiotic configuration was 25.94 I + 1.03 II (rod). Two pairs of primers were screened out from 150 simple sequence repeat markers, and primer WMC634 was used to identified the presence of the genome of Ae. sharonensis. Sequencing results showed that the F1 hybrids contained the Ssh genome of Ae. sharonensis. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profile showed that the alien high molecular weight glutenin subunits of Ae. sharonensis were transferred into the F1 and backcross derivatives. The new wheat-Ae. sharonensis derivatives that we have produced will be valuable for increasing resistance to various diseases of wheat and for improving the quality of bread wheat.
A collection of 35 accessions of the tetraploid wild wheat Aegilops geniculata Roth (MM, UU) sampled in northern Algeria was evaluated for morphological and biochemical variability. Morphological and ecological analyses based on morphological traits and bioclimatic parameters, respectively, were assessed using principal component analysis (PCA). Accessions were differentiated by width characters, namely spike’s width, and a weak relationship between morphological traits and ecological parameters was found. Polymorphism of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits was carried on by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Among accessions analyzed, 27 alleles were identified at the two loci Glu-M1 and Glu-U1: resulting in twenty-nine patterns and a nomenclature was proposed. Two alleles at the Glu-U1 locus expressed a new subunit with a slightly slower mobility than subunit 8. These results provide new information regarding the genetic variability of HMW glutenin subunits, as well as their usefulness in cultivated wheat quality improvement.