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Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker (Teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi) Drechs. Ex. Dastur) is a serious necrotrophic pathogen of wheat and barley in several countries. In this paper we report on mechanism of resistance and histopathological changes that occur on pathogen attack in resistant and susceptible genotypes. Callose deposition was observed in the epidermal cell wall of resistant genotype, Pusa T3336 at 2DAI. Lignin deposition around mesophyll tissues was also strongly observed by Phloroglucinol-HCl test in Pusa T3336. Four days after inoculation (4DAI), the pathogen colonized the leaf tissues showing inter and intracellular hyphae in susceptible genotype, Agralocal. In resistant genotype, no colonization was observed. The host tissue in susceptible genotype showed degeneration away from the site of colonization and also showed loss of structural integrity thereby indicating the role of toxin in pathogenesis. Separation of plasmalemma from the cell wall was observed due to loss of electrolytes and degradation of chloroplast at 5 DAI in the susceptible genotypes was prominently seen through light microscopy.

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Twenty pullets and adult chickens, aged 100 to 403 days, from several commercial chicken farms were examined by gross and histopathology. Grossly, all chickens had white-greyish masses in the visceral organs with or without enlargement of the peripheral nerves. Histopathological examination revealed Marek’s disease (MD) lymphoma, lymphoid leukosis (LL) and myeloid leukosis (ML) in 14/20, 5/20 and 1/20 of the chickens, respectively. Lesions of the sciatic nerves in chickens diagnosed as having MD lymphoma were various. No neoplastic and/or inflammatory cells were noted in the peripheral nerves of chickens diagnosed as having LL and ML. These results indicated that MD lymphoma could also develop in older chickens; thus, microscopic examination is needed to identify MD in older chickens showing lymphocyte-derived tumours.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Elena Palade
,
Nóra Biró
,
Mihály Dobos-Kovács
,
Zoltán Demeter
,
Míra Mándoki
, and
Miklós Rusvai

From a total of 1819 great tits ( Parus major ) ringed in 2007 in Pilis Mountains, Hungary, 15 birds presented nodular proliferative lesions on different areas of the head and eyelids, suggesting a poxvirus infection. Three birds were submitted for analysis. The presence of avipoxvirus infection was confirmed by histopathology, electron microscopy (EM) and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based technique. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 428 base pairs (bp) fragment of the viral 4b core protein gene revealed 100% identity between two of the Hungarian isolates (PM9 HUN, PM33 HUN) and two great tit poxvirus strains isolated in Norway in 1973 (GTV A256, GTV A311). The third Hungarian isolate (PM34 HUN) was more closely related to a different Norwegian isolate (GTVA310) than to the Hungarian isolates. The nucleotide sequence analysis of a shorter fragment of the viral 4b core protein (227 bp) gene revealed 100% identity between the Hungarian isolates, the same Norwegian isolates and a great tit poxvirus strain detected in Austria in 2007.

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One of the most serious problems in the chinchilla industry is 'fur-chewing', when the chinchilla bites off areas of its own or some other animal's fur. The condition generally develops in both genders at the age of 6-8 months. In chinchilla farms in Croatia an incidence of 15-20% has been observed. A pathomorphological, microbiological and parasitological investigation was conducted on eleven 6- to 11-month-old chinchillas of both sexes with clinical symptoms of 'fur-chewing' and three chinchillas without such signs. Histopathology of the adrenal glands and of the chewed skin revealed changes typical of Cushing's syndrome in 'fur-chewed' chinchillas, such as hyperkeratinisation of the epidermis, epidermal atrophy, pronounced follicular and sebaceous gland atrophy, hyperkeratinisation of the follicles with comedo formations and the presence of calcium salts in subcutis.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Bernadett Fakan
,
Eszter Baranyi
,
Réka Horváth
,
Endre Kálmán
,
Janina Kulka
,
Katalin Tölgyesi
,
Miklós Török
,
Nóra Udvarhelyi
,
Tamás Zombori
, and
Gábor Cserni

Absztrakt:

Bevezetés: Szervmegtartó műtéttel eltávolított emlőrákoknál fontos a sebészi szélek állapotának vizsgálata, dokumentálása. Ha az eltávolítás nem az épben történik, általában kiegészítő kezelés (ismételt sebészet, tumorágy-besugárzás) javasolt. Célkitűzés: Szervmegtartó műtéttel eltávolított női emlőrákok patológiai leleteinek sebészi szélekre vonatkozó információtartalmának elemzése, a nem ép szélek gyakoriságának felmérése és nem ép szélek esetén a további kezelések gyakoriságának becslése. Módszer: Nyolc magyar patológiai részlegből származó, mellrák miatt végzett szervmegtartó műtéthez tartozó patológiai leletek elemzése, nem ép szél esetén további lokális kezelésre vonatkozó adatok gyűjtésével. Eredmények: Kizárások után 386 leletet elemeztünk. Az ép szél korábbi definíciója (<5 mm) alapján 200, az újabb értelmezés (0 mm) alapján 32 lelet dokumentált nem ép széleket. Lobularis carcinoma esetén gyakoribb volt a szélek pozitivitása, mint nem lobularis rákok esetén. Az épben eltávolított tumorok műtéti anyaga nagyobb tömegű volt. Reoperáció 43/180, illetve 12/22 esetben történt a régi és az új definíció szerinti nem ép szélek esetén. A nem reoperált betegek közül csak 75/137 kapott biztosan külön tumorágy-besugárzást; sok esetben a ’boost’ kezelésről nem állt rendelkezésre információ. Reziduális tumor a reoperált betegek közül csak 15/43-nál igazolódott, 9-nél közülük úgy, hogy a festett szélben a primer műtéti anyagban nem írtak le daganatot. Következtetések: A patológiai leletek sebészi szélre vonatkozó információtartalma nem teljes körű. Az új biztonságos szél definíciója csökkentette a nem ép szél előfordulási gyakoriságát, de alkalmazásakor ép szélek mellett is maradhat reziduális daganat az emlőben, amint azt a reoperációs minták igazolják. Nem épben történő tumoreltávolításkor az esetek egy részében nem történik sem további sebészi kezelés, sem külön tumorágy-besugárzás. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(26): 1036–1044.

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Otosclerosis. 2. rész. Diagnózis

Otosclerosis. 2nd part. Diagnosis

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Balázs Liktor
,
Andor Hirschberg
,
Bálint ifj Liktor
, and
Tamás Karosi

Karosi T, Csomor P, Petkó M, et al. Histopathology of nonotosclerotic stapes fixations. Otol Neurotol. 2009; 30: 1058–1066.

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Linguatula serrata (Fröhlich, 1789) is a ubiquitous parasite species belonging to pentastomids, which has been reported frequently from domestic herbivores of Iran. This study was carried out to elucidate the pathological changes caused by the nymphal stage of L. serrata in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of goats. Jejunal and ileal MLNs of slaughtered goats infected with L. serrata were collected and fixed in 10% neutral formal saline. Histopathological changes included follicular necrosis accompanied by a loss of lymphocytes and oedematous cystlike spaces. Granulomatous lesions were formed by mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic tissue. Some lymphocytes were apoptotic with chromatolysis. A more frequent vascular abnormality was vasculitis. These findings show that larval migration is the main factor to initiate trauma and cause irritation in the MLNs of goats. Since goats are habitual intermediate hosts in Iran, rigorous inspection of the MLNs of slaughtered goats is recommended in order to decrease the chance of human infection through the consumption of raw visceral organs of goats.

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The presence of Yersinia ruckeri, the causal agent of enteric redmouth dis- ease (ERM) in salmonids and a few other freshwater fish, has so far been reported from a variety of sources including the intestine of healthy carp. Since there are no data on the pathogenicity of this bacterium for carp, 15 fingerlings were experi- mentally infected by intraperitoneal injection of about 5 × 105 cells. Thirteen in- jected fish were moribund or died within 4 days with septicaemic lesions. Two survivors were sampled on Day 28 after infection. Yersinia ruckeri was reisolated from the internal organs of all experimental fish. By histopathological examination moribund fish had generalised bacteriaemia with inflammation, degeneration and necrotic foci in kidney, liver and spleen, corresponding to findings described pre- viously in ERM of rainbow trout. Survivors of challenge on Day 28 had a chronic disease characterised by prominent peritonitis and enteritis, exhaustion of the erythroid, granuloid and lymphoid components in haematopoietic kidney tissue as well as focal degeneration and necrosis in organs. These data indicate a high sen- sitivity of carp to intraperitoneal infection with a relatively low dose of Y. ruckeri.

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To demonstrate the relationship between tumour development and virus replication, eight specific-pathogen-free pullets of line P2 (Group P; 14 weeks old) and five adult chickens (Group A; 96 weeks old) were inoculated with virulent Marek’s disease virus (vMDV). Five chickens of Group P died or were euthanised due to moribund condition following the development of neoplastic lesions between days 53 and 91. On histopathological examination, these lesions were characterised by the proliferation of lymphoid cells of variable size. On analysis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the MDV meq gene was detected in Group P from day 21, and it was continuously identified in five chickens until they died or were euthanised. Abnormal signs and histopathological changes were not observed in chickens of Group A. The MDV meq gene was temporarily detected in some chickens of Group A, but it remained almost undetectable throughout the experimental period. In older chickens inoculated with vMDV, the onset of MD lymphoma development tended to be delayed as compared with the young chicks. The relationship between MD lymphoma development and virus replication in older chickens has been suggested. Our data might indicate the underlying existence of an age-related resistance to vMDV challenge.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Branislav Kureljušić
,
Božidar Savić
,
Vesna Milićević
,
Nemanja Jezdimirović
,
Oliver Radanović
,
Jadranka Žutić
, and
Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang

Abstract

At a commercial farrow-to-feeder pig system with 2,100 sows in Serbia, lesions resembling porcine ear necrosis syndrome were observed in 80% of the weaned pigs at 45–50 days of age. Pathomorphological examinations were carried out on 10 pigs that had been found dead. The gross lesions ranged from mild, superficial dermatitis to severe, deep inflammation with exudation, ulceration and necrosis. Histopathological examination revealed erosive and ulcerative dermatitis of the pinna with neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltration and bacterial colonies in the crusts. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain), Staphylococcus hyicus and Streptococcus group C were cultivated from eight, S. hyicus from two ear tissue scraping samples. All 10 samples were positive for treponemes and phylogenetic analysis of two polymerase chain reaction products confirmed the relationship to Treponema (T.) medium/vincentii and Treponema pedis. Treponemes were also detected in seven oral swabs that were analysed to obtain evidence of the transmission of this bacterium by ear biting. The contribution of non-infectious factors to this misbehaviour could not be ruled out as the crude protein concentration of the feed was inappropriate and the climate of the pig house was suboptimal. The concentrations of selected mycotoxins in the feed were not elevated. However, the contribution of both infectious and non-infectious factors to the onset of disease was most probable.

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