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describe them. It demonstrates how color terms (like cognitive color categories) ‒ whether less common names or widely known category indicators ‒ are permanently subject to historical changes. 1 In the context of anthropology, in the 1970s the need

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The paper addresses historical changes in the stress system of Hebrew, attending to the difference between Biblical Hebrew (script-based) and contemporary Hebrew (attested), and predicting the system of post-Hebrew; on the basis of experimental evidence and words from the periphery of the lexicon, it is predicted that the stress system of post-Hebrew will be similar to that of Biblical Hebrew. The predicted change from contemporary Hebrew to post-Hebrew is attributed to a combination of two factors: the inconsistency of the present system, and its incompliance with universal principles. The changes are addressed in terms of constraint reranking within the framework of Optimality Theory.

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Fifty years is a very short time as covering a single life span, and very long compared to the stormy historical changes influencing not only the topics but the attitudes of scientific approach – that relates particularly to urbanism and town planning. Western “municipal socialism” and technocracy had its parallel with the ideologically influenced optimistic b_e

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Abstract  

The development of American medical education before the Civil War was studied. One hundred and forty-three first professors in American medical schools before the Civil War were selected, and records of their academic origins, places of birth, and study abroad were collected from various biographical sources. Based on the prosopographical analysis of personal data of first professors, the historical changes and the characteristics in American medical education are discussed.

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The influence of various factors upon the shape of Bradford's bibliograph was assessed through an examination of 16 bibliographies, of which ten were comprehensive. We obtained a curvature score for each bibliograph plotted in a standard landscape format so as to permit comparison; we found that the amount of concave up curvature (convexity): (a) is negatively correlated with a bibliography's overall publication density; (b) depends on the status (technical vs. nontechnical) of the disciplinary source of a bibliography, with technical disciplines showing less convexity; and (c) is complexly affected by the historical changes in the discipline. Findings are discussed in the context of questions about the graphical formulation of Bradford's Law.

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From demonic to karmic retribution

Changing concepts of bao in early mediaeval china as seen in the You ming lu

Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: Zhenjun Zhang

The You ming lu is a tale collection that demonstrates Buddhist influence as it began to appear in popular Chinese literature on a relatively large scale. While some indigenous themes in the collection remain in their original states, others have been modified to reflect Buddhist assumptions. This provides us with a vivid picture of some of the historical changes that occurred in the development of early mediaeval Chinese culture. The concept of retribution, bao, is deeply rooted in Chinese culture. In the You ming lu, indigenous demonic retribution is a popular theme, but in some stories this theme became blurred because the demonic figure is not directly evident, showing a tendency of intermingling with Buddhist notion of retribution, xianshi bao. Most importantly, stories with explicit Buddhist flavour and those featuring Buddhist karmic retribution appear in large number. This is a gradual but tremendous change under the impact of Buddhism.

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The study site is the Honghe National Nature Reserve, a Ramsar designated site on the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. We present results regarding the spatial pattern and structure of plant communities in these most important natural but continually diminishing freshwater wetlands of China to help promote both protection and restoration. By investigating three ecological levels (landscape, ecosystem and community), this paper quantifies the characteristics of spatial pattern with the aim to identify specific ecological correlations with different hydrogeomorphic features. Specifically, the research involves hierarchical mapping of vegetation types by use of remote sensed data, and the coupling of landscape indices with fluvial topographic zones that have been deduced by GIS from DEM. Statistics from historical survey data are also used to measure the degradation of marshes as well as the historical change of the hydrological regime. We found that dominant is the Calamagrostis angustifolia — Carex spp. community type, a wet meadow and marsh complex within the prevailing landscape mosaic of shrubland and meadow. The results suggest that the sites’ hydro-geomorphic character has decisive influence on plant community structure and composition. There is only limited direct human interference in the sites and, as a consequence, the spatial pattern of vegetation distribution is natural. However, changes to the hydrological regime as the result of extensive irrigation activity in the surrounding area has led to rapid degradation of marsh wetlands within the sites, which threatens the ecological status in this storehouse of “Natural Genes” in the reserve.

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The present paper outlines a historical change in Hungarian syntax by focusing on participial constructions and their clausal equivalents in ten different Hungarian translations of the Bible. The first part investigates the relative frequency of the relevant structures and, relying upon statistical data, it characterises the process of a shift from analytic to synthetic constructions. Then we analyse secondary semantic differences among the various structures (participial constructions, subordinate clauses and coordinate clauses) and propose that in the case of subordination the semantic relationship between the matrix sentence and the dependent clause is expressed in an explicit manner. However, if the meaning of the related participial construction is complex (combining features of temporal, causal, and instrumental relationships), a subordinate clause can express only one of these, and the other features are not represented in it. Coordination, on the other hand, especially asyndetic (conjunctionless) coordination and that involving the conjunctions és, s ‘and’, is more capable of embracing several shades of meaning. Thus, in terms of their semantic properties, coordinate clauses are more similar to participial constructions than subordinate clauses are. Finally, the paper raises some general ideas with respect to the theoretical background of this kind of shift in sentence construction. The framework of the study is what is called “traditional grammar”, but it also introduces some terms of functional grammar.

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A tanulmány tárgya a magyar nők munkapiaci és családi helyzetének egymással összefüggésben történő, értékszempontú elemzése. Először elhelyezzük Magyarországot a világ értéktérképén, majd a munka és a családi élet történeti változásait követjük nyomon. A jelenlegi helyzet elemzéséhez elsősorban statisztikai adatokat használunk, valamint a világérték-kutatások adatbázisát, és idézünk számos magyar kutatási eredményt. A nők munkapiaci részvétele féloldalas emancipáció jegyeit viseli magán. Egyrészt a munkapiacon még mindig meglévő negatív diszkrimináció, másrészt a nőkkel szembeni ellentmondásos elvárások miatt. Bár a nők munkaattitűdjei szinte teljességgel azonosak a férfiakéval, és az általuk betöltött állások más felelősségi szintet, más rangot, más fizetést hoznak számukra, mégis a férfiakkal azonos szintű elégedettséget fejeznek ki munkájukkal kapcsolatban. Szintén ellentmondásos helyzetet tapasztalhatunk a családi élet kapcsán: a kinyilvánított tradicionális értékek és a tapasztalt tényadatok – házasságkötések, válások, vállalt gyermekek száma – között feszülő ellentétet.

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A téma-összefoglaló tanulmány a Magyar Pszichológiai Társaság XXIII., 2014. évi Marosvásárhelyi Nagygyűlésén elhangzott előadásnak szerkesztőségi felkérésre megírt, kibővített változata. A címben megjelölt fogalmak történetileg változó jelentésének nyomon kísérését követően elemzi a spiritualitás helyét a mentális egészségkoncepciókban. Határt von a vallásosság és a spiritualitás között, kiemelve a lényegi különbözőségeket. Rávilágít arra, hogy a (teljes) egészség szerves részét alkotó spiritualitás mint az egyedi, személyes filozófia meghatározója jelentős szerepet játszik az egészség megőrzésében, a prevencióban és egészségpromócióban egyaránt. Megkülönbözteti a spirituális szemlélet és életgyakorlat bizonyítékokon alapuló eredményességét, valamint a vallási rendszer(ek)nek elkötelezetteknél igazolható egészségmegőrző szerepét. A feltárt bizonyítékok alapján az a konklúziója, hogy a spiritualitás egészségvédő faktor, pszichológiai vagyon.

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