Historical lexicography and history of words fail to examine the validity of the words in old dictionaries. This gap is attempted to be filled up with this present study on the five-language dictionary (Latin, Italian, German, Croatian, and Hungarian) compiled by Faust Vrančić, a Croatian author, published in 1595, which is analysed by seven criteria. The words analysed are equivalent to Latin nouns and adjectives. The Latin lexemes comprise more than half of the entries, which is a substantial sample to draw general conclusions. It is pointed out in the study that the dictionary provided help primarily in understanding Latin texts. It may have been to the greatest use of speakers of the four (non-Latin) vulgar languages at mother-tongue competence or those who were familiar with them. The dictionary seems not to have been adequate in all cases for those interested in these languages to enlarge their vocabulary.
Historical lexicography and etymology fail to examine the validity of words in old dictionaries. This gap is attempted to be filled up with the present study on the five-language dictionary (Latin–Italian–German–Croatian–Hungarian) published in 1595 and compiled by a Croatian author Faust Vrančić. In the paper, seven criteria are used. The analyzed words are equivalent to Latin nouns and adjectives. The Latin lexemes comprise more than half of the entries, which is a substantial sample to draw general conclusions. It is pointed out in the study that the dictionary provided help primarily in understanding Latin texts. It may have been to the greatest use of speakers of the four (non-Latin) vulgar languages with mother-tongue competence or those who were familiar with them. The dictionary seems not to have been adequate in all cases for those interested in these languages to enlarge their vocabulary.
The paper presents the first part of the review highlighting the results of the compilation of The Electronic Historical Dictionary of Loanwords in the Russian Language of the 11th–17th Centuries: Greek and Polish Loanwords, the first electronic dictionary of borrowings in Russian historical lexicography containing about eight thousand lexemes. Grecisms and Polonisms represent completely different layers of vocabulary due to their genetic, chronological, and functional indicators. Each layer requires an independent description and the use of an individual research methodology. They are presented in two separate essays.
The first part is devoted to the Grecisms (more than four thousand lexemes are described in the Electron- ic Dictionary). The structure of the electronic dictionary and its parameters (fields) are shown. The main tasks that were solved during the creation of the first part were the following: identification with the Greek language; the expansion of the volume of the described vocabulary; the identification of diverse phonetic and morphological variants; the determination of the first fixations and hapax legomena; the establishment, clarification, and / or correction of semantics in well-known lexicographic descriptions; the introduction of etymological information; the detection of the “Greek layer” in the untranslated Russian script and its word-formation development, etc.
In the course of the study, the layer of the described vocabulary was expanded due to a broader understanding of the term Grecism. This allowed to show a complex picture of the Greek vocabulary development in all the variety of phonetic and morphological (including unadapted) forms that were found in Russian writings of the 11th–17th centuries. A number of lexemes and lexical forms have been discovered and described, which have not yet been presented in Russian historical and Slavic lexicography. The features of adaptation and reflection of the medieval Greek language in the borrowed vocabulary are shown.
Derivative words were also included in the Electronic Dictionary. Two parameters of the Electronic Dic- tionary – “translated sources” and “original sources” (with an indication of a certain source and date of appearance) – allowed to trace the moment of entry and further existence of the lexeme of Greek origin as well as its survival and word-formation development in original Russian writings of the 11th–17th centuries. This topic needs further research and deserves a separate description.
The electronic dictionary makes it possible to carry out numerous research operations, which create a multi-sided view of the ways of the penetration, survival, and functioning of the vocabulary of Greek origin in the Russian language on a wide chronological scale comprising seven centuries.
The Croatian Faust Vrančić published a five-language dictionary (Latin–Italian–German–Croatian–Hungarian) in the year 1595. This study examines to what extent the author knew these languages, apart from Latin. Not only does it scrutinise the knowledge of words of Vrančić but it also restores his awareness of the rules of the different languages, relying us several linguistic data. Vrančić must have had an excellent and active command of all the four languages, as the study finds it. The only difference in his awareness of languages can merely be pointed out in his vocabulary, concerning each. He knew the Hungarian language best and the Croatian language least. It can also be pointed out that the author was very resourceful in the field of lexicography.
The aim of this paper is to present the compatibility of words in the Ukrainian language of 16th and 17th centuries based on the attributive-substantival complexes and the lexicographical attempt to describe these lexical units.