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Arrian’s preface to the Anabasis is ‘an honourable exception’ in the ancient historiography, since in the first few lines of his history of Alexander, the Nicomedian historian openly gives his sources and reveals his methods of his source-criticism for the reader. Nevertheless, the opening of the Anabasis is noteworthy not only because it is an honourable exception, but it provides for modern readers some important information about the nature of ancient historiography. It points out how historiographical traditions might have influenced the historian’s approach while he was selecting his sources.

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It is not surprising, given that the Ab urbe condita is an important source of information about Roman religious practices, to find frequent mentions of Juno’s shrines or cults in Livy’s work. Yet, we have to ask ourselves to what extent this religious data has been rewritten and recomposed according to the Roman historiographical tradition in order to provide the audience with a particular view of Roman history. A further study allows us to distinguish two kinds of Junones: Roman and Italian Junones who stood as a protective goddess of Rome, on the one hand, and on the other, Junones from the borders of the Roman world, who supported or questioned Rome’s identity and its Empire’s guiding principles in the historical narrative.

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Belarus, young and still somewhat undefined nation that emerged after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, of all its East European neighbours, has the least developed national historiographical tradition. Neither is it known as a separate entity. For many centuries, Belarus was a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which in 1569-1795 formed a confederation with Poland. Oleg Łatyszonek's and Ales´ Bely's article tries to restore the picture of historical relations between Belarus and Hungary in 13-17th centuries. Certain historical consistency can be seen: Hungarian interest in Belarus has always been connected to Hungarian claims to “Galicia et Lodomeria”, Halycz-Volhynia, mighty Ukrainian principality whose lands eventually fell prey to its neighbours. First possible trace of contacts between the Belarusian Principality of Polatsk and Hungary dates back to 1217/1218, and may be seen as a sign of alliance between Hungary, Suzdal and Polatsk, directed against Halycz-Volhynia. In the mid-14th century, Grand Duchy of Lithuania absorbed today's Belarus and continued to expand southwards, which caused its clash with Hungary for the heritage of Halycz-Volhynia, including the SW Belarus (vicinity of Brest). Terra Alborum Ruthenorum is mentioned in several Hungarian accounts of these events, and it may be argued that the would-be political name of Belarus was coined by the Hungarians in 14th century. Another hypothesis links the origin of the 'Double Cross', one of the Belarusian national symbols, with the heraldic arms of the Kingdom of Hungary. Hungarian claims to the SW Belarus remained a stable geopolitical factor in the history of the region, and the last remarkable case of these claims was the Compact of Radnoth between Sweden and Transylvania that led to a short-term Hungarian occupation of Brest in 1657.

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