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Introduction Honey is a natural sweet, viscous, fluid food. It is produced from the nectars of flowers by honeybees. It contains sugars, organic acids, various amino acids, and biological active compounds: α -tocopherol, ascorbic acids and

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, individual, institution, or event ( Kim and Hunter, 1993 ). The social component includes the subjective norms determined by the perception of the social pressures acting on the individual, to perform certain behaviour or not ( Ajzen 1991 ). Honey production

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nitrite with NO synthesis, the beneficial effects of nitrate and nitrite consumption on health have been revealed in a number research papers ( Machha and Schechter, 2011 ; Kapil et al., 2014 ; Bryan and Ivy, 2015 ). Honey is the most

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The aim of the work was to evaluate the authenticity of honey present in Lithuanian market using GC-FID analysis of trimethylsilylated carbohydrates. In total, 15 natural honey samples and one artificial honey sample were analysed. In general, the composition of carbohydrates in the tested samples of natural honey was quite similar, except for trisaccharides, which were not found in any of the analysed samples. Although the amount of identified compounds was different, the percentages of the quantified sugars in natural honey were within the limits established by Codex Alimentarius Commission. Artificial honey contained 9.01% of sucrose and 34.60% of maltose, while the content of maltose in natural honey varied in the range of 0.29–1.41%. The content of fructose and glucose in artificial honey was 2.41% and 22.89%, respectively; while the sum of the main monosaccharides in natural honey was averagely 38.80%. The results obtained indicate that tested natural honey samples from Lithuanian market were genuine products.

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Honey is a valued substance that has excellent nutritional value. However, it is a vulnerable product, with the possibility of adulteration at each stage of its production and processing, in terms of direct and indirect adulteration. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding of honey-bee colonies with honey-bee candy results in honey adulteration. The physicochemical properties of honey samples were determined, and the ability to discriminate between authentic and adulterated honey was studied. The physicochemical properties evaluated were water and hydroxymethylfurfural content, electrical conductivity, pH value, acidity, foreign enzymes, and stable isotopes. Sensory and melissopalynological analysis were also performed on 39 honey samples. β-fructofuranosidase activity, δ13C (honey), difference between the δ13C of the honey and of its protein (i.e. Δδ13C) were identified as the most important to discriminate between authentic and adulterated honey samples. The results of the study indicate that honey-bee feeding practices might have an influence on honey and its adulteration.

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Studying fungal diversity in various environmental samples provides us with valuable knowledge about the occurrence of fungi of medical and ecological importance. Moreover, fungal composition may also characterise well the botanical and geographical source of food products, such as the origin of the spore enriched honeydew honeys. Thereby, we identified a wide spectrum of fungi found in 100 of honey samples from various geographical sources – most of them were from Italy, Greece and Hungary. Our honeydew honeys had a higher mean of the number of spore types found in them than floral honeys had. Statistically significant differences in diversity were found regarding the botanical source (p = 1.29 × 10–9) and the climatic classification (p = 2.28 × 10–2) according to Kruskal– Wallis rank sum tests. Most frequently encountered genera included ubiquitous saprotrophic species (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum nigrum, Stemphylium), both in floral and honeydew honeys. On the other hand, certain sooty moulds like Aureobasidium pullulans, Tripospermum and Capnobotrys were rather present in different types of honeydew honeys. Metschnikowia reukaufii, the nectar inhabiting yeast reached considerably high quantities in floral honey samples. Present findings encourage further studies on quantifying the occurrence and the indicator value of specific fungal elements in honey, concerning its origin.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Korošec
,
J. Bertoncelj
,
A. Pereyra Gonzales
,
U. Kropf
,
U. Golob
, and
T. Golob

Honey consists of simple carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose represent the majority of honey’s carbohydrate profile, while a spectrum of oligosaccharides is in minority, but typical for the honey type regarding its main source nectar or honeydew, respectively. The content of different carbohydrates was determined in 63 samples of four types of Slovenian honey (acacia, spruce, multifloral and forest honey). The honey samples were of different botanical and geographical origin, and were analysed six to ten months after harvest. The type of honey was determined by sensory analysis and electrical conductometry. In order to determine the content of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides high-pressure anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) was used. The applied chromatographic method with pulsed amperometric detection enables reliable and selective detection of carbohydrates, especially oligosaccharides, in honey. Statistical comparison of the results showed that there were statistically significant differences among some parameters, while for others such differences did not exist. The results of our research and available data of other authors propose that the carbohydrate profile (the presence of individual carbohydrates in honey) and the content of carbohydrates in honey may have a potentially valuable role in the assessment of botanical origin of honey and as an indicator of putative adulteration of honey with sugar mixes or syrups, respectively. Nevertheless, analysis on numerous samples and different honey types are needed.

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In this study we examined the proline content of 143 honey samples with different flower origin. Some of the samples originated from commercial trade, the others came directly from beekeepers. We measured the proline content of beekeepers’ honeys and the received results were compared to the results of commercial honeys. The effects of added sugar products and heating on the quality parameters were also studied.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
Miroslava Kačániová
,
Simona Pavličová
,
P. Haščík
,
G. Kociubinski
,
Vladimíra Kńazovická
,
M. Sudzina
,
Janka Sudzinová
, and
Martina Fikselová

As the honey-bee gastrointestinal tract microflora and pollen are the primary sources for the honey microbial community, the aim of this work was to study and characterize the microbial transit among them. Therefore, an exhaustive microbial analysis of honey, adult honey-bee gastrointestinal tract, and pollen from different Slovakian regions and different seasons, was conducted. Microbial screening revealed that the primary sources of microbial community present in Slovakian honey are pollen and the honey-bees’ digestive tract microflora, containing microorganisms normally present in dust, air and flowers. We found that the digestive tract of Slovakian adult honey-bees is highly populated by anaerobic, rather than aerobic bacteria, where coliforms, enterococci, staphylococci, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., microscopic fungi and yeast were found. Interestingly, statistical differences were found between the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of summer and winter bees. Pollen revealed the presence of mesophil anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms, coliforms and microscopic fungi. Among these, the most representative genera were Alternaria, Cladosporium and Penicillium . In honey the counts of total anaerobic and total aerobic bacteria, that of coliforms, enterococci, bacilli, microscopic fungi and yeasts were monitored. Most frequently microscopic fungi belonging to genera Penicillium, Cladosporium and Alternaria were found.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
J. Goon
,
C. Choor
,
R. Ainaa
,
X. Sze
,
M. Syahriah
,
M. Syamimi
,
S. Rashidi
,
M. Mardiyanna
, and
J. Zakiah

Honey is a dietary antioxidant as it contains phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids. Antioxidants are non-nutritive, biologically active ingredients in food that reduce oxidative stress. The antioxidant content in each type of honey varies depending on its source. This study was aimed to determine the effect of Nenas honey supplementation on the oxidative status of a group of healthy medical students. They were divided into two groups; control (n=10) and supplemented (n=13), where 1 tablespoon of Nenas honey was given each day. Blood sampling was done at baseline, 1st and 2nd month of the study for determination of DNA damage and antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidise (GPx), and catalase (CAT). Results showed that Nenas honey increased the level of DNA damage at the 1st month but reduced it significantly at the 2nd month as compared to control. GPx and CAT activities also decreased significantly with honey supplementation throughout the study, though no changes were observed in SOD activity. Fasting glucose levels remained within the normal range with honey supplementation. In conclusion, Nenas honey decreases oxidative stress which leads to a reduction of antioxidant enzyme activities in the body.

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