The hop (Humulus lupulus), a component of beer, is a sedative plant whose pharmacological activity is due principally to its bitter resins, especially to the α-acid component 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The mechanism of action of the resin of hop consists of increasing the activity of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric (GABA), inhibiting the central nervous system (CNS). Objectives: To analyze in an experimental model of diurnal animal the sedative effect of hop, a component of beer, on the activity/rest rhythm. Methods: Experiments were performed with common quail (Coturnix coturnix) similar to humans in the sleep-wake rhythm, isolated in 25 × 25 × 25 cm methacrylate cages, with food and water ad libitum, in a room with artificial ventilation (22 ± 1 °C) and a lighting cycle of 12L/12D (n = 5). The doses administered, close to the content of non-alcoholic beer, were 1, 2 and 11 mg extract of hop as one capsule per day, at 18:00 h for one week. A control group received capsules only with a methylcellulose excipient and a basal group received no treatment. The chronobiological analysis of the animals’ activity captured and logged by the software DAS24 was performed using the Ritme computer program (cosinor methods). Results: With the dose of 2 mg, there was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of the arithmetic mean nocturnal activity (23 ± 3.0) with respect to the basal (38.56 ± 2.79), control (38.1 ± 2.8) and other doses groups 1 mg (52.04 ± 3.65) and 11 mg (47.47 ± 5.88). This dose of 2 mg, similar to the concentration in beer, was more effective in reducing nocturnal activity than the other doses of 1 and 11 mg, as well as preserving the circadian activity/rest rhythm. Conclusion: The concentration of 2 mg of hop extract effectively decreased nocturnal activity in the circadian activity rhythm. On the basis of this investigation, administration of non-alcoholic beer would be recommended due to its hop content and consequent sedative action, which would be an aid to nocturnal sleep.
In this paper, I review how formal features are currently regarded and used in the Minimalist Program. Although features are the cornerstone in Minimalism, they are used in many different and conflicting ways. Features may seem particularly relevant to affix-hop because the affix has to be checked against a higher verb or auxiliary. Chomsky’s (1957) analysis of affix-hop has the affix connected with an auxiliary, e.g., the -en of have-en, move to a verb on its right, as in have see-en. This analysis is one of the high points of early generative grammar but, with each new instantiation of the generative model, it has needed adjustments and the phenomenon is still debated. I will elaborate on a proposal made in van Gelderen (2013) who argues that interpretable tense, mood, or aspect are in a low position being probed by the relevant uninterpretable features in a high position. This view I claim is consistent with data from change and acquisition. I also discuss the implications of this reliance on features for learnability and Universal Grammar.
themselves or enhance the antimicrobial activities of conventional antibiotics when applied in combination.
Hop and its biologically active ingredients
Hop ( Humulus Lupulus L.) is a species of the hemp
The results of this study show that the most usual damages of hop glandular trichomes are obtained on tunica of peltate glandular trichomes as well as cracking of bulbous glandular trichomes. In fresh hop cones any sorts of damage of glandular trichomes are obtained, on the other hand frequency of damaged hop glandular trichomes increase after drying (fi=0.08) and after pelletization of hop cones the structure of glandular trichomes is completely destroyed. Volume of hop glandular trichomes of dried hop cones is significantly smaller in the comparison with volume of glandular trichomes of fresh hop cones (D=0.544×10−2 mm3; P<0.01) and a phenomenon of shrinkage on tunica surface of peltate glandular trichomes of dried hop cones is also visible in comparison with the fresh one. The decrease in volume of hop glandular trichomes in dried hop cones is the result of dehydration of hop cones and consequently hops glandular trichomes during the drying process which cause shrinkage of peltate glandular trichomes. However, after pelletization the structure of hop glandular trichomes is completely destroyed.
A sensitive thin-layer chromatographic method has been established for quantification of xanthohumol in hops (
L.) and hop products. Chromatographic separation was performed on silica gel 60 HPTLC plates with toluene-dioxane-acetic acid, 77 + 20 + 3 (
), as mobile phase. The plates were scanned densito-metrically at
= 368 nm. The method was validated for precision, repeatability, and accuracy. It was found to be precise — intra-day and inter-day
were 1.7% and 2.3%, respectively. Instrumental precision and repeatability for the method were found to be 0.38 and 1.5 (%
), respectively. The accuracy was checked by measuring the recovery at three levels; average recovery was 103.9%. The method was used for the estimation of xanthohumol in hop extracts and xanthohumol-enriched beer and was confirmed to be suitable for this purpose.
Hop pellets type 90 are the most frequent hop products used in brewing. They are usually manufactured by drying hop cones, temporary storage of dry and pressed cones, milling and pelletising. Other possibility is a complete integration of hop harvest, cone drying, milling and pelletising in continuous process without temporary storage of pressed cones. The paper deals with the losses of bitter substances (primary α-acids) during hop cones drying, their pelletisation by two manufacturing procedures and storage in different conditions. The results of this study show that integrated procedure of hop pelletising decreases the total loss of α-acids compared to the usual procedure. During storage of hop pellets (produced by integrated procedure) the highest decrease (loss) of α-acids content was observed in pellets stored at 21 °C in the presence of air and the lowest under inert atmosphere (N
) at 4 to 7 °C, respectively.
Commercially available hop pellets of different origins were extracted by use of ethanol and water, chromatographed on silica layers by use of nonaqueous eluents, chemically derivatized and observed in ultraviolet (UV) light for the localization of component bands. The plates were developed in optimized systems, and direct bioautographic method by use of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli strains was applied for the examination of the antimicrobial activities of hop components. The method enables for the identification of bactericidal/bacteriostatic components in the extracts of different polarities and shows differences in the composition of extracts from various varieties from an antimicrobial point of view.
In the geographical centre of Asia - in today's Tuva Republic, within the frame of the Russian Federation - there lives a small ethnic group which the historical and ethnographic literature variously calls Soyot, Uriankhai, Tofa, Todzha. To fully appreciate the work of Mongush Kenin-Lopsan (1997), it is worth getting to know the history of research on Tuva shamanism. We need to do so especially since Hungarian researchers, including Vilmos Diószegi (1923-1972), the teacher of the present author, also collected in Tuva in 1958 and published important studies. This is why we have borrowed, with a slight change, the title of his book published in English (Diószegi 1968) as the title of this overview.
Through a careful examination of the accounts of Daqin (大秦) — presumably the Roman Empire — and Fulin (拂菻) — Byzantinum —, we can depict a picture of how the Chinese imagined another ancient empire far away in the West. The Chinese annals not only give information on and the interpretation of the name of that mysterious country but also add details about its geography, administration, economy — including agriculture, domesticated animals and products -, trade and the envoys sent by Daqin (大秦) people. Such a description could be remarkable on its own but the accounts also emphasise the similarities between the two great empires that might have originated in their same cultural level.