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Previously described and alternative methods of the induction of sexual maturation in the European eel were investigated. Weekly administrations of a gonadoliberin agonist (GnRH-A=D-Phe6-GnRH-Ea) did not induce statistically significant effect on the gonads of treated eels in none of the dosages used (0.1 mg and 10 mg/fish). Carp pituitary extract and carp pituitary extract together with a dopamine antagonist caused considerable external changes (increase in eye size) and significant gonadal development in two treatment groups: wild and cultivated stocks. The induction of the ovulation by double amount of CP and gonadoliberin agonist with dopamine antagonist mixture was not successful in a wild stock. Fertilisation of stripped eggs of farm eel was attempted unsuccessfully in, due to low egg quality. An advanced phase of the sexual maturation process could be induced in specimen infected by Anguillicola crassus indicating, that nematode infection is not a limiting factor in the artificial propagation of the European eel.

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In order to approach their natural conditions, populations of Tetrahymena were kept in Losina-Losinky’s salt solution for 1 h, than in the tryptone+yeast medium. During this time they were treated with histamine, serotonin or insulin, or with the combinations of these hormones. Effect of the combined treatments on the production of serotonin (5HT), or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or triiodothyronine (T3) by the cells was compared to the effect of single-hormone treatments. Significant differences were seen between the results obtained following the single or combined treatments. There was no summation of the effects, however an elevation or diminution of the hormone production was observed after the combined treatment, as compared with the untreated controls or with the use of one of the hormones in the samples. The experiments demonstrate that there is a hormonal regulation between the Tetrahymena cells and the hormones influence each other’s effect.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: T. Müller, T. Molnár, A. Szabó, E. Yamaha, Éva Járási, M. Bercsényi, A. Specziár, B. Urbányi, and R. Romvári

The present study aimed in vivo tracking of maturation of male eel by computed tomography (CT). Additionally, individually monitored testes sizes were correlated with the conventionally used external maturity indicators (i.e. eye and nose indexes) in order to test and improve their usefulness at individual level. Testes could be clearly identified with the CT from the end of the third week of hCG administration routinely used to induce maturation in fish. The volume of testes increased exponentially during hormone treatment, and by the end of the sixth week of maturation procedure all males produced motilable spermatozoa. Present results prove that testes size can noninvasively be monitored with CT from maturity level where testes size rich 3000 mm3 volume. Eye and nose indexes are in close correlation with testes volume and thus can also be effectively used to monitor maturaty level of male eel, but preferably only at stock level. However, due to their high individual variability, these indexes can be applied only with caution at individual level and should be supplemented with other noninvasive techniques such as CT.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: L. Zhang, Z. Yan, S. Dai, Q. Chen, Z. Yuan, Y. Zheng, and D. Liu

Two experiments to investigate the crossability of Triticum turgidum with Aegilops tauschii are described. In the first experiment, 372 wide hybridization combinations were done by crossing 196 T. turgidum lines belonging to seven subspecies with 13 Ae. tauschii accessions. Without embryo rescue and hormone treatment, from the 66220 florets pollinated, 3713 seeds were obtained, with a mean crossability percentages of 5.61% which ranged from 0 to 75%. A lot of hybrid seeds could germinate and produce plants. Out of 372 combinations, 73.12% showed a very low crossability less than 5%, 23.39% showed the crossability of 5–30%, 2.69% showed the crossability of 30–50%, 0.81% showed high crossability more than 50%, respectively. Among the seven T. turgidum subspecies, there were significant differences in crossability. The ssp. dicoccoides and dicoccon showed the highest crossability, while polonicum the lowest. All the crossability percentages more than 30% were obtained from the crossing of ssp. dicoccoides or dicoccon with Ae. tauschii .In the second experiment, the genetics of crossability was investigated using T. turgidum ssp. durum cultivar Langdon and the D-genome disomic substitution lines of Langdon. Compared with the control Langdon, lines 7D(7A) and 4D(4B) showed higher crossability, which suggested that chromosomes 7A and 4B of tetraploid wheat cv. Langdon carried dominant alleles inhibiting crossability with Ae. tauschii . The relationships of present results with previously reported crossability genes of wheat are discussed.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Zoltán Szelényi, Orsolya Gabriella Balogh, Fernando Lopez-Gatius, Irina Garcia-Ispierto, Eszter Krikó, and György Gábor

Double ovulation occurs more frequently in multiparous cows with high milk production than in primiparous cows and the rate of twin pregnancy/calving is increasing worldwide. Diagnosis of twin pregnancy is possible by ultrasound at the time of early pregnancy examination [28–34 days after artificial insemination (AI)]. Pregnancy proteins are also well-known indicators of gestation. The risk of pregnancy loss during the first trimester of gestation for cows carrying twins is three to nine times higher than for cows carrying singletons. Pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) is a good indicator not only of pregnancy but also of pregnancy loss. The aims of this study were (a) to collect calving data in some Hungarian Holstein-Friesian herds (n = 7,300) to compare PSPB serum concentrations (measured 29–35 days post insemination) in twin- and singleton-calving cows (Trial 1), and (b) to check the predictive value of PSPB serum concentration for twin pregnancy and pregnancy loss in high-producing Spanish Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 98; Trial 2). Our results showed almost 7% twin calving rate. Although hormonal treatments are commonly believed to be major causes of twin pregnancies, our data do not support this hypothesis. The only exception is the single PGF injection, which significantly increased twin calving. No effect of milk production on the risk of twin pregnancy was found, and twin pregnancy increased with parity. The AI bull, the bull’s sire, the bull’s grandfather and the cow’s father also affected twin calving (P ≤ 0.02). We found much higher frequency of twin calving in cows diagnosed pregnant with higher than 3 ng/ml serum PSPB concentrations at 29–35 days after insemination. In Trial 2, non-significant but well-marked differences were found in PSPB serum concentration between singleton- and twin-pregnant cow samples (2.1 and 2.9 ng/ml) at different bleeding times. Probably the small size of the study population and the effects of milk production on PSPB values may explain this lack of significance.

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., Pancarci, S. M. and Risco, C. A. (2001): Effects of hormonal treatments on reproductive performance and embryo production. Theriogenology 55, 7589. Effects of hormonal treatments on reproductive performance and embryo production

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Cékitűzés: A vizsgálat célja meghatározni a postmenopausalis hormonterápia (kizárólagos ösztrogén-, szekvenciális és folyamatosan kombinált ösztrogén-progesztogén kezelés) hatását az endometrialis vérzésre és a méhnyálkahártya szövettani átalakulására. Beteganyag: Szerzők klinikájának Menopauza Ambulanciáján ötéves időszakban (2000–2005) 5893 beteget gondoztak, és vizsgálták a postmenopausalis méhvérzések előfordulását a hormonterápiában részesültek és nem részesültek csoportjában. Vérzés esetén mindig frakcionált abrasiót végeztek, és a mintákat szövettanilag feldolgozták. Eredmények: A postmenopausában lévő betegek hormonkezelésben nem részesítettek csoportjában több mint kétszer több vérzés fordult elő, mint a hormonkezelésben részesültek között. Anyagukban a proliferatiós és a hyperplasiás endometrium-leletek elsősorban a nem kezelt páciensek közül kerültek ki, ami amellett szól, hogy a megfelelő időben, akár már a menopausa előtt megkezdett hormonkezelés csökkentheti a hyperplasia és ezáltal közvetve az adenocarcinoma kialakulásának az esélyét. A kizárólag ösztrogént alkalmazó betegekben gyakoribb volt a hyperplasia. Elképzelhetőnek tartják, hogy az ellensúlyozatlan ösztrogénkezelés a már meglévő endometrium-hyperplasiát tovább súlyosbíthatja. A hormonkezeltek csoportjában atípiával járó komplex hyperplasia nem, csak simplex hyperplasia fordult elő. A folyamatosan kombinált készítmények alkalmazása mellett az esetek döntő részében a méhnyálkahártya atrófizálódott, így lényegesen csökkent a hyperplasiával járó eltérések s a mellékhatásként jelentkező vérzés esélye. A hormonkezeltek között gyakoribb volt az endometrium-polip, és nem tudják megmagyarázni, de a cervicalis polypusok aránya is. Következtetés: A szerzők tapasztalata szerint a hormonkezelés nem rizikótényezője az endometrium-karcinómának, hanem a kombinált készítmények a hyperplasia és ezen keresztül az adenocarcinoma eredeti esélyét csökkentik.

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Verstegen, J. (1999b): Hormonal treatment and reproductive failure in the bitch. Reprod. Hos. Hund., Dansk Veterinaer Forening for Hundyn Reproduction, Intervet Skandinavia, Copenhagen. Hormonal treatment and reproductive failure in

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Clarke, S. F., Guy, P. L., Burritt, D. J. and Jameson, P. E. (2002): Changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in response to virus infection and hormone treatment. Physiol. Plant. 114, 157–164. Jameson P

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Stevenson, J. S., Call, E. P., Scoby, R. K. and Phatak, A. P. (1990): Double insemination and gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment of repeat-breeding dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 73, 1766–1772. Phatak A. P

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