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. He , W. , Feng , F. , Huang , Y. , Guo , H. , Zhang , S. , Zheng, Li, Liu , J. , Wang , Y. , Yu , H. ( 2012 ) Host defense peptides in skin secretions of Odorrana tiannanensis: Proof for other survival strategy of the frog than merely

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Broekart, W. F., Terras, Fr. R. G., Bruno, P. P. A. és mtsai: Plant defensins: novel antimicrobial peptides as components of the host defense system. Plant Physiol., 1995, 108 , 1353–1358. Bruno P. P. A

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PA , Danilenko DM , Hu Y , Sa SM , Gong Q , Abbas AR , Modrusan Z , Ghilardi N , de Sauvage FJ , Ouyang W : Interleukin-22 mediates early host defense against attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens . Nat Med 14 ( 3 ), 282 – 289 ( 2008

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peptides as mediators of epthelial host defence. Pediatr. Res., 1999, 45 , 785–794. Bewins Cl. Antimicrobial peptides as mediators of epthelial host defence

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or growth factor activation, it was suggested that these peptides were misclassified as anti-microbials [ 31 ]. Their newly coined name is host-defense peptides (HDPs) reflecting their complex functions in inflammatory responses, chemoattraction

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A Mor 2009 Host-defense peptide mimicry for novel antitumor agents Faseb J 23 4299 4307

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The effect of elicitors isolated from the mycelial walls of Colletotrichum falcatum (the red rot pathogen of sugarcane) and from C. lindemuthianum (a non-pathogen) in suspension-cultured cells of sugarcane was studied. Both the elicitors induced the synthesis of enzymes of the phenyl­propanoid pathway such as PAL, TAL and 4CL and also resulted in the enhanced accumulation of phenolics. However, a specific induction of the defense parameters at higher levels was recorded in suspension cells treated with the pathogen elicitor and no such differential response was observed in the case of the non-pathogen elicitor. Elicitor induced necrosis and browning of cells were observed which suggests an additional evidence that elicitors simulate pathogen infection and thus provide a valuable reason that study on elicitor induced responses may be useful in understanding the host defense mechanisms against the red rot pathogen at molecular level.

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The spleen structurally and functionally belongs to the hematopoietic organs and is also an important component of the reticuloendothelial system, which is known to play a major role in host defense. The histological structure of the spleen was investigated in the ostrich, a non-flying bird, the kestrel, a raptor, and the osprey, a fish-eating bird of prey (fish eagle). For this purpose, Mallory’s modified triple stain, methyl green-pyronin and silver stain were used. Germinal centers were not present in the spleen of the osprey. In the spleen of the kestrel, penicillar arterioles and the surrounding lymphoid tissue were markedly dense. Compared to the other two birds, the red and white pulps were clearly distinguishable in the spleen of the ostrich.

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The goal of this study was to give insight into the lesser known action of neutrophils in the course of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Neutrophils are principally involved in resistance to infection but under certain conditions these cells participate in lung injury. TNFα and IL-8, primary cytokines which play an essential role in neutrophil activation during the inflammatory process, may lead not only to host defence reaction but also to destructive responses. Neutrophil constituents, such as elastase, myeloperoxidase (MPO), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and superoxide among others, contribute to tissue destruction. Also, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE), the potent activator of neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation, can cause lung injury. This study revealed that neutrophils under the influence of TNFα exacerbated the release of elastase, MPO, ALKP and superoxide. IL-8, in turn, triggered those neutrophils which were isolated from heifers suffering from BRD, and released elastase, ALKP and 5-oxo-ETE, but not MPO or superoxide (O 2 ). The most pronounced degranulative response was observed in the acute form of BRD and a lesser response was seen in the chronic form. The secretory action of neutrophils varied not only depending on the form and phase of the disease but it also diminished successively during recovery.

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Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and P2X7 receptor are crucial for host defence against mycobacterial infections. Recent studies have indicated that IFN-γ, IFN-γ receptor 1 (IFN-γR1) andP2X7 gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). However, the relationship between IFN-γ and P2X7 polymorphism and TB susceptibility remains inconclusive in Iranian population. For this reason, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IFN-γ (G+2109A), IFN-γR1 (G-611A) and P2X7 genes (at –762, 1513 position) in patients (n = 100) were assessed using PCR-RFLP. Data were analysed with SPSS version 18. For the 2109 loci of IFN-γ gene, the frequency of mutant alleles between patients and controls were not statistically significant. However, there was a significant difference between the TB patient and controls for –611 alleles of IFN-γR1 (P = 0.01). Additionally, the frequency of P2X7 gene polymorphisms (SNP-762 and 1513) between patients and controls was statistically significant. In conclusions, our study revealed a significant association of IFN-γR1 and P2X7 genes polymorphisms with risk of developing TB in Iranian population.

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