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oat hulls by Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase and Trichoderma xylanase. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 :1625–1630. Christensen D.A. Release of ferulic acid from oat hulls by

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Xue-Gang Chen, Shuang-Shuang Lv, Ping-Ping Zhang, Lu Zhang and Ying Ye

Introduction Rice, sharing equal importance with wheat, is one of the major crops grown throughout the world. Rice is the principal staple food and nourishment for the world’s population. Rice hull, or rice husk, is the milling

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test for habitat filtering: convex hull volume. Ecology 87:1465–1471. Ackerly D.D. A traitbased test for habitat filtering: convex hull volume

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: T. Warzecha, T. Adamski, Z. Kaczmarek, M. Surma, P. Goliński, J. Perkowski, J. Chełkowski, H. Wiśniewska, K. Krystkowiak and A. Kuczyńska

Clear, R.M., Patrick, S.K., Nowicki, T., Gaba, D., Edney, M., Babb, J.C. 1997. The effect of hull removal and pearling on Fusarium species and trichothecenes in hulless barley. Can. J. Plant Sci. 77 :161

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Abstract  

We extend the notion of circular hull to arbitrary normed planes and prove that a compact, convex set of constant Minkowskian width has the circular hull property in such a plane. Also we show how this property is related to the so called weak circular intersection property.

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Hull, D. L. (1976): Are species really individuals? Syst. Zool. 25 : 174-191. Are species really individuals Syst. Zool. 25

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Abstract  

Radioactivation of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) and Zirlo cladding hulls after 55 GWD/tU burn-up and 10 years of cooling was simulated using the ORIGEN-S code. The simulation results revealed that 125Sb and 60Co are major contributors of both radioactivity and decay heat in the case of the Zry-4 hulls. For the Zirlo hulls, 93mNb and 125Sb consisted 82.2% of radioactivity while 125Sb and 60Co emitted 77.9% of decay heat. Although the radioactivity between the Zry-4 (1.17 Ci for 1 kg of fresh Zry-4) and Zirlo (1.38 Ci for 1 kg of fresh Zirlo) hulls was not significantly different, decay heat of the activated Zry-4 hulls (8.58 mW) was much larger than 1.62 mW of the activated Zirlo hulls. This gap might have come from the different major constituents of Zry-4 (Zr, Sn, Fe, and Cr) and Zirlo (Zr, Sn, Nb, and Fe) resulting in different radioactive nuclides after radioactivation. Chlorination reaction behavior of the activated Zry-4 and Zirlo hulls was performed using the HSC chemistry code. Constituents of recovered ZrCl4 were investigated via changes of Gibbs free energy and boiling points of resulting chlorides. The calculation results suggested that radioactivity and decay heat might decrease by 49.0 and 81.8%, respectively, in the ZrCl4 recovered from the activated Zry-4 hulls. In the case of Zirlo, it was expected that radioactivity and decay heat might decrease by 11.6 and 13.0%, respectively, after the chlorination reaction. Effect of cooling time on radioactivity and decay heat was also investigated.

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Abstract  

Chlorination reaction behavior of Zircaloy-4 hull waste was investigated by using HSC chemistry code as a function of decladding ratio. The Zircaloy-4 hull waste and residual spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remaining in the hull waste after oxidative decladding process were considered as reactants of the chlorination reaction. It was assumed that the hull waste and residual SNF is fed into the chlorination reaction after oxidative decladding at 700 °C, which might have cause partial/full oxidation of the hull waste and residual SNF components. Reaction temperature for the theoretical calculation was set at 330 °C. The simulation results suggested that solid phase chlorides (BaCl2, SrCl2, NdCl3, LaCl3, and RhCl3) are produced prior to formation of ZrCl4(g) and HfCl4(g). Although ZrCl4(g) is produced later than the solid products, it was expected that ZrCl4(g) can be easily separated from other chlorides as it is a gas phase at 330 °C. Therefore, it was concluded that the decladding ratio might not affect formation of ZrCl4(g) when sufficient chlorine gas was supplied. Equilibrium composition analysis suggested that highly pure ZrCl4(g) with 0.006 mol.% of HfCl4(g) might be recovered from the hull waste via the chlorination reaction method.

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Abstract  

Chlorination reaction behavior of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding hulls was demonstrated by using a quartz reactor system. By reacting at 380 °C for 3 h, mass of the Zry-4 hulls decreased by 65.8 wt% with Cl2 utilization of 87.1 mol%. Composition of collected product was analyzed and it was revealed that concentration of Zr was higher than 99.97 wt%. The purity of Zr in the experimental result was higher than expectation when considering Sn (1.31 wt%) and Fe (0.25 wt%) contents which can produce gaseous SnCl4 and FeCl3 at the experimental condition. Theoretical calculations were performed to clarify the high purity of Zr by using the HSC code. The simulation results revealed that formation of ZrCl4 is more preferred than SnCl4, FeCl3, and CrCl3. The preference of chloride formation was confirmed by the theoretical calculation, and it was suggested that the major constituents of Zry-4 might react with Cl2 to produce chlorides in an order of ZrCl4 > CrCl3 > SnCl4 > FeCl3. It was also suggested that continuous removal of ZrCl4 and sufficient supply of Zr source during the chlorination reaction might have contributed to the high purity of Zr.

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