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The Balkans, particularly southern and central, were sparsely populated in the Mesolithic and the occupation networks in that period were discontinous and highly diversified, contrasting with the density and homogeneity of the Early Neolithic. The aim of this paper is to describe the environmental conditions of the Mesolithic sites in relation to Early Holocene climatic fluctuations and to discuss the causes of specificity and diversity of culture and behaviour at this period.

Some general trends are observable in the adaptation to Early Holocene environments (trends in faunal exploitation; for ex. shift from high ranked large game to low ranked small animals) but also particular adaptations to local conditions (technological changes due to difficulties in access to better quality lithic raw materials, adaptations to coastal or to terrestrial resources reflecting the unique features of site use, etc).

The diversity of the Mesolithic is also reflected in cultural taxonomy: in some sequences continuity of the Balkan Epigravettian techno-morphological tradition can be seen as opposed, in other sequences, to highly isolated groups with technology and tool morphology adapted to local raw materials and specific activities. The Balkan Mesolithic was not completely cut-off from the Western Mediterranean techno-morphological influences (particularly in Southern Greece) and from the Anatolian lithic traditions (seen only in the Northern Aegean). A more intensive network of marine contacts is confirmed by obsidian circulation in the Aegean Basin.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Mohsen Bashashati, Zohreh Mojahedi, Ali Ameghi Roudsari, Morteza Taghizadeh, Aidin Molouki, Najmeh Motamed, Fereshteh Sabouri and Mohammad Hossein Fallah Mehrabadi

Abstract

Despite the use of wide-scale vaccination programmes against the H9N2 virus, enzootic outbreaks of H9N2 avian influenza (AI) have often occurred and caused serious nationwide economic losses, particularly in broiler chickens. In this study, the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of nine recent H9N2s and a common vaccine strain were fully sequenced and compared with other representative Iranian viruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Iranian viruses were grouped into the G1 sub-lineage with different clusters in which recent isolates (2014–2017) formed a distinct cluster compared to the vaccine group (1998–2004). All Iranian H9N2s exhibited low pathogenicity AI connecting peptide feature with an R/KSSR motif. Amino acid 226, located in the 220 loop of the receptor binding site, was leucine among the recent Iranian viruses, a characteristic of human influenza viruses. With an overall gradual increase in the genetic diversity of H9N2s, Bayesian skyline plots of Iranian HA and NA genes depicted a fluctuation and a relative stable situation, respectively. It is recommended to apply constant surveillance to assess any increase in viral human adaptation and evolutionary changes in circulating field H9N2s. Moreover, antigenic characterisation of the prevailing H9N2 viruses seems to be necessary for evaluating the possible antigenic drift from the vaccine strain.

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. Tomasello 1999 The human adaptation for culture Annual Review of Anthropology 28 509 529 . T

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. Gurven 2009 Human adaptations for the visual assessment of strength and fighting ability from the body and face Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276 575

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human adaptation for culture. Annual Review of Anthropology, 28, 509–529. Tomasello , M., Kruger , A. C., Ratner , H. H. (1993) Cultural Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 495

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experiences . Journal of Vocational Behavior , 66 ( 1 ), 26 – 44 . Bandura , A. ( 1998 ). Personal and Collective Efficacy in Human Adaptation and Change . In J.G. Adair

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331 340 Mano T: Sympathetic nerve mechanisms of human adaptation to environments — Findings obtained by recent microneurographic studies. Environ. Med. 34, 1–35 (1990

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. Sümegi, P., R. Kertész, E. Hertelendi 2002: Environmental Change and Human Adaptation in the Carpathian Basin at the lateglacial/postglacial transition. - British Archaeological Report, 1043, pp. 171-177. Environmental Change and

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5 1 14 Sell, A., Cosmides, L., Tooby, J., Sznycer, D. , Von Rueden , C. and Gurven , M. (2009): Human adaptations for the visual

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), human adaptations to the prehistoric environment of the Pleistocene, Richard Dawkins' gene-centric view of evolution, and Hamilton's Rule. Hopcroft ( 2016: 81-82 ) occasionally refers to the findings on other primate species and explains how the

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