Authors:Zoltán Langmár, Balázs Langmár, Márta Király and Zoltán Mátrai
There is probably nobody in Hungary who does not know the name of József Béres; however, only a few will be aware what powerful commitment and perseverance lay behind his results. József Béres has acquired ever lasting merit in Hungarian trace element research and his fair and decent life that always radiated deep humanity is an example not only for those involved in scientifi c research or in the healing professions but also for those who “simply” would like to draw strength for the struggles of everyday life. The unwavering perseverance of the modestly dressed man who gained his knowledge by hard diligence as well as the honest desire to help those in need is a quality József Béres had; thus, his life is exemplary for all of us. When researching this brief essay, I relied primarily on biographical and other data associated with his research that had been generously provided by his family.
The present day genetic architecture of a species bears much significance to its closely related species which is due to species-specific differences, shaped by different evolutionary forces across time scale. With the availability of whole genome sequence of several closely related species, it is now possible to infer evolutionary patterns of genes and genomes in specific lineages. To this respect, CD4 gene, primarily responsible for defensive mechanism in human, is conserved across a few taxa, and thus, comparative genomic studies could be useful for better understanding of host—pathogen biology. Comparative and evolutionary analyses were performed in eleven taxa (10 mammalian and avian) with different statistical algorithms. Phylogenetic inferences revealed recent divergence of human and chimpanzee, and pig was found to be diverged from rest of the taxa significantly. Additionally, gene length, microsatellites, and secondary structures were observed across taxa. The genetic architecture of CD4 gene and its evolutionary history in different mammalian taxa provide crucial evidence in support of the fact that this gene might have been evolving at a similar rate to other human immune system genes. Future population-based study and structural modeling would unravel the differential ability to interact with HIV virus and influence immune system in humans.
Segerstrom, S.C., Miller, G.E. (2004): Psychological stress and the humanimmunesystem: a meta-analytic study of 30 years of study. Psychological Bulletin 130 : 601-630.
Psychological stress and the humanimmunesystem: a meta
Khorram, O., Garthwaite, M., Golos, T.: The influence of aging and sex hormones on expression of growth hormone-relasing hormone in the humanimmunesystem. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86 , 3157–3161 (2001).
Authors:Odin Andreas Johan Jakobsen and Laszlo Szereday
the humanimmunesystem [ 7 ]. This fact is precisely why the relationship between the gut microbiota and autoimmune diseases has gained an immense amount of interest within the past decade, including its relationship to T1D. The microbiota hypothesis