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Humanism and Theology in Renaissance Florence

Four Examples (Caroli, Savonarola, Ficino, and Pico)

Verbum
Author:
Amos Edelheit

The argument in this article is that we should not make clear-cut distinctions between humanism and philosophy or theology, and between the humanists and their contemporary scholastic theologians and philosophers, in the Florentine context of the second half of the fifteenth century. The relations between these two groups were complicated and included, beyond obvious differences, also mutual influences, not always discussed in detail among modern scholars. Starting from the known controversy between Eugenio Garin and Paul Oskar Kristeller regarding the nature of the humanist movement and its relations with philosophy, I then move-on to present four examples: the first two deal with "scholastic" theologians and preachers, the Dominicans Giovanni Caroli and Girolamo Savonarola, in whom I emphasize the humanist bias; the last two deal with humanist philosophers, Marsilio Ficino and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, in whom I emphasize the importance of religion and theology for the understanding of their philosophy.

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1. The Trend of Legal Humanism and Ancient Laws. 2. Natural Law and Research in the Relation of Laws of Antiquity

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) with the aid of the young Swiss humanist Joachim Vadianus. From 1497 onwards, Renaissance humanism in Hungary had very close ties to Vienna and its university. The wandering humanist Girolamo Balbi, who was a professor at the university, befriended

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Abstract  

The essay discusses, in chronological order, three important black texts on race: DuBois’s 1897 speech “The Conservation of Races,” Charles Johnson’s collection of essays Being and Race (1988) and, finally, Paul Gilroy’s critical assessment of postcolonial identity politics in Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line (2000). Though in ways significantly differing, all of these texts struggle to undo the limitations of racialized discourse and, in its stead, introduce new forms of theorizing racial differences. Rather than being grounded in biological or even cultural differences, here race appears to be geared to variations of behavior that need to be conceptualized with respect to highly ideological structures of perception. Since postcolonial texts on race usually respond to longstanding assumptions about the nature and role of racial differences in human society, I begin by briefly delineating the history of the race concept as it evolves from late eighteenth through the nineteenth-century seems appropriate.

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Style and Inscription

Inscriptions in classical and early humanist capital letters cut in stone in Hungary in the age of King Matthias and the Jagiellos

Acta Historiae Artium Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Árpád Mikó

renesancia. Mestá, umenie a idey Erazma Rotterdamského [Humanism and Renaissance. Cities, art and ideas of Erasmus of Rotterdam] , in Problémy dejín výtvarného umenia Slovenska [Problems of the history of Slovak visual arts] , Bratislava , 2002 , 120

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). The mastery of nature. Aspects of art, science, and humanism in the Renaissance , Princeton University Press . Princeton . De Jong , E. ( 1991 ). Nature and art. The Leiden hortus as ‘musaeum ’. In: Tjon Sie Fat , L. and De Jong , E. (Eds

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As a subsidiary project of the Novum Glossarium research programme the A Magyarországi Középkori Latinság Szótára [Lexicon of Mediaeval Latin in Hungary] was launched in 1934 and cooperation on it has been carried out by the UAI (Union Académique Internationale) and HAS (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, MTA) ever since. Printed editions of the project findings have been published since 1987. Thesaurus Linguae Latinae and Mittellateinisches Wörterbuch served as framework for the series, within which five regular and one supplement volumes have been published so far. These volumes comprise the dictionary entries from A—I, all of which are richly supplemented with illustrative quotations.

Our study contains entries whose illustrative quotations have been mostly collected in the past few years and have not been known before. The resulting entries either serve as new additions to the printed volumes or can complement entries lacking proper and comprehensive documentation and thus improve our knowledge of Latin vocabulary items used in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary.

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In the 15th and 16th centuries, humanist scholars traced back the contemporary names of peoples and settlements to similar sounding ancient personal and geographical names. This is how they tried to establish a connection between antiquity and their own times. The same method was used by the Viennese Humanist Johannes Cuspinianus in his work Diarium, which is a report on the events of the 1515 Viennese Congress. Based on folk etymology, Cuspinianus traced back the Latin names of four Hungarian towns (Suppronium, Posonium, Iaurinum, Strigonium) to ancient roots. The analysis of the text suggests that in the case of three towns out of the four, the author made use of Antonio Bonfini’s Rerum Ungaricum decades as a source. As for the remaining town, he followed in the footsteps of earlier humanists and developed his own etymology. The Bonfini-based discussion of the etymologies of the three names can also be found in Austria, another work written by Cuspinianus around 1528. This seems to refute the idea commonly adapted in the literature that Bonfini’s work was completely ignored by scientific circles between the mid-1510s and the 1540s. In light of the above, it may be well worth researching the works of contemporaneous humanists for further traces of the Decades.

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This study deals with Celtis’ practice of rewriting and recontextualizing his own poetry. His poem To the literary odality of Hungarians (Ad sodalitatem litterariam Ungarorum, Odes II.2), addressed to a Hungarian ‘coetus’ (not a ‘sodalitas’) was first published in 1492. Through a detailed analysis of the poem, I claim that this ode was not directed to an academic circle of friends in Buda, but rather to the ‘bursa Hungarorum’ at the University of Cracow. As Celtis took up teaching in Ingolstadt in the spring of 1492, he published the Epitoma, which contained his course material on rhetoric from Cracow, and contained five poems, including this poem, which he composed while still in Poland. Consequently, it cannot be regarded as a proof of the continuity of academic thought between the Neo-platonic circles of King Matthias (1485-1490) and the Vienna-centered Sodalitas Danubiana of 1497. Around 1500, to please his Hungarian aristocratic friends in the Sodalitas Danubiana, he revised the same poem in Vienna and added it to the cycle of his Odes.

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