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A májfibrosis gyógyszeres kezelése a rendelkezésre álló széles körű terápiás lehetőségek ellenére a mai napig nem megoldott. Irodalmi adatok alapján hidroxi-fahéjsav-származékokat tartalmazó növényi kivonatok in vitro és in vivo modellekben antifibroticus hatásúak. Célkitűzés: A szerző adatokat kívánt nyerni a májfibrosis adjuváns terápiájában és prevenciójában alkalmazható gyógy- és fűszernövények antifibroticus hatású hidroxi-fahéjsav-származékairól. Módszer: Fali kövirózsa présnedve, valamint hét közismert, a Lamiaceae családba tartozó fűszernövény hidroxi-fahéjsav-származék-tartalmát és összetételét vizsgálta spektrofotometriás és HPLC-módszerekkel. Eredmények: A Lamiaceae fűszernövények magas hidroxi-fahéjsav-származék-tartalommal rendelkeztek, vezető komponensként minden esetben rozmaringsavat tartalmaztak, míg a kövirózsa hidroxi-fahéjsav-származék-tartalma alacsonyabb volt. Következtetések: A kövirózsaprésnedv jelentős antioxidánsaktivitással rendelkező polifenol vegyületei miatt valószínűsíthető, hogy farmakológiai hatása a tartalmi anyagok együtthatásának köszönhető. A vizsgált fűszernövényekben az antifibroticus hatású hidroxi-fahéjsav-származékok koncentrációja jelentős, így az eredmények alátámasztják ezen növények májbetegek diétájában való alkalmazását. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 948–953.

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., Bartolome, B., Carmen, G.C. 2001. Hydroxycinnamic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in barley and processed barley. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49 :4884–4888. Carmen G.C. Hydroxycinnamic

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In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

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The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of irrigation on the composition and content of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in different tomato cultivars using HPLC/DAD-UV technique and reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic columns for analysis. Among phenols, the quercetin derivatives and hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives were the major compounds, while lycopene was the dominant carotenoid in the extract of tomato. It was found that the response of tomatos to shortage of water is affected by genetic factors and seasonal environmental variations. In general, 100% irrigation yielded tomatoes with the lowest level of carotenoids and polyphenols. In 2012, when the temperature and number of sunny hours were at record levels, the non-irrigated plants of cultivar Strombolino yielded tomatoes with significantly higher levels of carotenoids and phenols than that of the other cultivars.

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Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful technique that combines the chemical and spatial analysis of surface materials. It allows spatial localization of peptides, proteins or lipids that are recorded in parallel without the need of a label. It is currently one of the most rapidly developing techniques in the proteomics toolbox. In the present study, accurate mass matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALD IMS) was used for direct molecular mapping of nervous tissue at micrometer spatial resolution. Cryosections of the whole brain of the terrestrial snail, Helix pomatia, were placed on indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated conductive glass slides and covered with a thin layer of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) matrix by electro spray deposition. High-resolution molecular ion maps of well-known neuropeptides, such as FMRFamide were constructed. FMRFamide is known to exert powerful modulatory effect on synaptic transmission in molluscs. FMRFamide was predominantly localized in the cluster of neurons in the pro-, meso- and postcerebral regions of cerebral ganglia, pedal ganglia and right parietal ganglia of the central nervous system. Our present study, using MALDI IMS confirmed the distribution of FMRFamide containing cells in the Helix central nervous system previously detected by antibody dependent immunohistochemistry.

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Phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities from different solvent extracts (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, butanol and water) of Aster scaber leaf were investigated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by three different methods, namely DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay and phosphomolybdenum activity. A total of twenty-three polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified from A. scaber leaf extracts, including hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and other groups of phenolic compounds. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis of the leaf extract revealed that myricetin (4850.45 μg/g) was the most dominant flavonols, compared to quercetin and kaempferol. Caffeic acid was the dominant phenolic compound in A. scaber leaf extracts, it constituted about 104.20 μg/g, followed by gentisic acid (84.50 μg/g), gallic acid (61.05 μg/g) and homogentisic acid (55.65 μg/g). The total phenolic and flavonoid content was the highest in ethyl acetate extract (322.43 and 6.51 mg/g). The decreasing order of antioxidant activity among the A. scaber leaf extracts assayed through all the three methods was found to be ethyl acetate > butanol > methanol > petroleum ether > water extract.

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This study was designed to develop a simple, sensitive, selective, and precise high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint and quantitative estimation method for the analysis of three phenolic compounds from nine Leucas species. The developed HPTLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The method permits reliable quantification of one important phenolic acid (gallic acid) and two hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids) in 50% hydroethanolic extracts on silica gel with toluene—ethyl acetate—formic acid 8:2:1 (v/v) as the mobile phase. The system showed good resolution and separation of caffeic, ferulic, and gallic acids (at R f values 0.48, 0.60, and 0.30, respectively) from the other constituents of the extract. Densitometric scanning was done at 300 nm in absorbance mode. All the results obtained by the developed method were statistically compared for validation parameters, for accuracy and good precision. Caffeic, ferulic, and gallic acids were estimated in all the aforesaid nine Leucas species, but the quantity varied from species to species. Further, these phenolics were reported from the aforesaid Leucas species for the first time, except for Leucas lanata and Leucas urticifolia. However, Leucas biflora, Leucas decemdentata, and Leucas stricta were documented for their chemical constituents for the first time. The proposed HPTLC method can be used for routine quality testing of Leucas species.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: A. Mikulajová, D. Šedivá, M. Čertík, P. Gereková, K. Németh and E. Hybenová

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) genotypes with red and yellow colour of grain bran were examined and compared for their content of nutritive components, fatty acids and phenolic compounds profile. Moreover, the antioxidant properties were investigated using three different methods. Foxtail millet genotypes contained 14.2% of protein, 5.0% of fat and 4.3% of soluble sugars, on average. Linoleic acid was the most abundant unsaturated fatty acid and palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid. Four hydroxybenzoic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic and syringic acid) and two hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and p-coumaric acid) were identified and quantified. All genotypes exhibited effective inhibition of free radicals. Nevertheless, ferrous ion chelating activity was weak. Antioxidant properties of foxtail millet genotypes were closely associated with the presence of phenolics. A relationship between intensity of grain colour and antioxidant properties as well as phenolic compounds content, was observed. We can conclude that the content of evaluated parameters varied among foxtail millet genotypes, therefore their assessment and selection is desirable in order to cultivate crops and produce foods with advanced nutritional and antioxidant properties.

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To evaluate the quality of Fructus Arctii, an accurate and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection—electrospray ionization—mass spectrometry (HPLC/DAD—ESI—MS) was developed. Nine compounds, including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, arctiin, arctignan A, ethyl caffeate, matairesinol, arctigenin, and lappaol B, were determined simultaneously in 19 batches of Fructus Arctii samples collected from different localities. Nineteen common peaks were identified or tentatively assigned by comparing their mass spectrometric data with reference compounds, self-established compound library, and published literatures. Also, the 19 common peaks were selected as characteristic peaks to assess the similarity of chromatographic fingerprinting of these samples. Moreover, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were successfully applied to demonstrate the variability of samples. The results indicated the content of nine compounds that varied greatly among the samples, and 19 samples collected from different localities could be discriminated. Furthermore, chlorogenic acid, arctiin, and arctigenin were found to be chemical markers for evaluating the quality of Fructus Arctii.

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Fresh pods of Moringa oleifera with nutraceutical importance are widely consumed in food commodities as vegetables. It is nutritious and it also has several biological activities. In the present study, a simple, rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was applied for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds, viz., gallic (phenolic acid), p-coumaric, caffeic acid (hydroxycinnamic acid), chlorogenic acid (cinnamic acid derivative), quercetin and kaempferol (flavonols) in flowers, pods, leaves, twigs, and seeds of M. oleifera. Simultaneous separation and quantification of compounds were achieved on HPTLC pre-coated silica gel 60 F254 aluminum plates using the mobile phase toluene–ethyl acetate–formic acid (14:10:1). Densitometric determination was carried out at λ max 282 nm. The calibration curves were linear, ranged between 0.984 and 0.998; the limit of detection and quantification ranged between 110.8 ng mL−1 and 142.3 ng mL−1, and 301.6 ng μL−1 and 410.8 ng μL−1; and recovery ranged between 96.2% and 97.9%. The validated method was successively used to analyze the above compounds in the plant parts of M. oleifera. The amount of the total phenolic content and specific phenolic compounds ranged from 4.86 mg g−1 (gallic acid equivalent [GAE]) to 14.79 mg g−1 (GAE) and 0.007% quercetin (flower and flower with pods) to 0.099% gallic acid (pods of 15 days). This study reveals that the presence of specific phenolic compounds in M. oleifera shall be a good source for the isolation of the above-mentioned compounds for industrial use.

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