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Hug F, Marqueste T, Le Fur Y, Cozzone PJ, Grelot L, Bendahan D: Selective training-induced thigh muscles hypertrophy in professional road cyclists. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 97, 591–597 (2006) Bendahan D

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Introduction Muscle hypertrophy is characterized by a growth in muscle mass due to increased protein synthesis in muscle fibers. Several mechanisms regulate protein synthesis and myofiber growth; however, the major pathways of muscle growth

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Soy is increasingly used as a food additive. In women, it is recommended as an alternative to hormonal replacement therapy and/or a preventive agent against breast cancer and osteoporosis. Previous data revealed that rats fed on raw soybean diet developed pancreas hypertrophy and hyperplasia. An animal model was used in our experiment to examine the effects of raw soybean on parotid gland of rats. The purpose of this study was to light on the role of different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibres on changes in the acinar cells. The morphological structure and the neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers (NPY, GAL, SOM, SP, CGRP, VIP) of the glands were examined by light and electronmicroscopy. Significant increase of the organ weight was detected in the animals fed by raw soybean compared to control samples. Changes in the number of different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibres were various: Significant decrease in the NPY-immunoreactive (IR) and significant increase in the GAL-IR nerve fibres were observed. Slight but not significant increase in VIP-IR; and no changes in the other IR nerve fibres were found. The electronmicroscopic alterations of acinar cells were manifest, where a large number of undifferentiated glandular cells were seen among the acini. Some of these cells contained two nuclei and their cytoplasm contained only a few secretory granules. These granules were similar to those in the mucous cells but not to the serous ones. The results presented here provide direct morphological evidence for the role of raw soy on the density of different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibres inducing proliferation in the acinar cells of parotid glands from rats. It is suggested that the hypertrophic changes in the glands might be caused by the alterations of nerve fibres.

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Aim: Ventricular remodeling causes left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in myocardial infarction patients. We hypothesized that LVH can be evaluated using isointegral body surface maps. Methods: Thirty-two patients with post-infarction stable chronic heart failure underwent a 64-electrode body surface mapping (isointegral QRS, QRST, ST and STT maps) and 2-D echocardiography. Results: LVH was present in 16 of them (50%) according to 2D-echocardiography. Isointegral maxima increased and the minima were more negative in patients with LVH, and the differences were statistically significant for: isointegral QRS maxima (35±16 versus 60±21 mV.ms, p=0.0085) and minima (25±15 versus 69±14 mV.ms, p=0.0067), isointegral maxima and minima in the second third of the QRS complex, isointegral QRST minima and isointegral ST minima (5±2 versus 10±4 mV.ms, p=0.0026). Isointegral multipolar maps prevalence was increased in patients with LVH (75% versus 50%). Isointegral QRS and QRST maxima correlated best with the left ventricular mass (r=0.73 and 0.81). Conclusion: Body surface mapping is a useful method for the evaluation of patients with left ventricular hypertrophy in post-infarction heart failure. The most sensitive parameters are: isointegral QRS maxima and minima, especially in the second third of the QRS complex, isointegral QRST maps (minima, maxima and multipolarity) and isointegral ST minima.

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and muscle hypertrophy ( 18 , 29 ), we sought to investigate the acute changes in sEMG, swelling, and torque immediately following each bout of blood flow-restricted exercise. We hypothesized that increasing the pressure and/or load would result in

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
Kenichi Watanabe
,
R. Thandavarayan
,
N. Gurusamy
,
S. Zhang
,
A. Muslin
,
K. Suzuki
,
H. Tachikawa
,
M. Kodama
, and
Y. Aizawa

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Diabetes mellitus is a well-known and important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The occurrence of diabetic cardiomyopathy is independent of hypertension, coronary artery disease, or any other known cardiac diseases. There is growing evidence that excess generation of highly reactive free radicals, largely due to hyperglycemia, causes oxidative stress, which further exacerbates the development and progression of diabetes and its complications. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by morphologic and structural changes in the myocardium and coronary vasculature mediated by the activation of various signaling pathways. Myocardial apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis are the most frequently proposed mechanisms to explain cardiac changes in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mammalian 14-3-3 proteins are dimeric phosphoserine-binding proteins that participate in signal transduction and regulate several aspects of cellular biochemistry. 14-3-3 protein regulates diabetic cardiomyopathy via multiple signaling pathways. This review focuses on emerging evidence suggesting that 14-3-3 protein plays a key role in the pathogenesis of the cardiovascular complications of diabetes, which underlie the development and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

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A modern nyelőcsősebészet és a késői funkcionális eredmények “többismeretlenes egyenlete” – MTA Doktori Pályázat

The modern esophageal surgery and the late functional results as equations with several unknowns – MScD Thesis

Magyar Sebészet
Author:
Áron Altorjay

Absztrakt

Azonos típusú betegségek esetén ugyanolyan műtéti eljárást alkalmazva, anatómiailag ideálisnak mondható per primam sebgyógyulást követően a késői funkcionális eredmények sokszor mégsem azonosak. Ennek hátterét kutatva 637 nyelőcső- és gyomorműtét összesített adatait és a műtétek alatt nyert szövetminták biokémiai, hisztológiai és elektronmikroszkópos feldolgozásával nyert eredményeit értékeltük. Az antirefluxműtétek utáni panaszok egyik lehetséges okaként a refluxos LES izomban hypertrophiára jellemző anyagcsere-változást és enteralis ganglionitist találtunk. A Z-vonal endoscopos klippelésével, majd ezt követően kontrasztanyagos nyelésröntgennel és substractiós képelemzéssel sikerült a rövid oesophagus jelenlétét preoperative igazolni. Megállapítottuk, hogy refluxbetegségben a nyitott műtétre az ezredforduló után is szükség lehet, elsősorban az anamnaesisben szereplő felhasi műtétek, sikertelen nyitott vagy laparoscopos rekonstrukciók, illetve szövődményes reflux eseteiben. A cardia adenocarcinomáiban a daganatot határoló ép szövet és a daganat proteolyticus enzimaktivitásainak – AMAN, CB és DPP I – hányadosa prognosztikus értékkel bír, segítségével a neoadjuváns kemo-radioterápia indikációja felállítható. Az “Akiyama-gyomorban” az operációt követően jelentkező panaszok jól korrelálnak a myoelektromos paraméterekkel és a gyomor contractilis aktivitásával. Az elektromechanikus adaptáció folyamata a műtét utáni tünetek fokozatos regressziójában nyilvánul meg. A gastro-jejuno-duodenalis interpositio (GJDI) egy olyan “second best” műtéti megoldás, mely mind a korai Barrett-carcinomák, mind a pepticus stricturák miatt végzett limitált oesophagus resectiókat követően a jejunalis vagy colon-interpositiók technikai nehézségei estén kerül előtérbe.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
Jeremy Loenneke
,
C. Fahs
,
R. Thiebaud
,
L. Rossow
,
T. Abe
,
Xin Ye
,
D. Kim
, and
M. Bemben

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mechanisms behind the blood flow restriction (BFR) stimulus in the absence of exercise. Nine participants completed a 10 minute time control and then a BFR protocol. The protocol was five, 5-minute bouts of inflation with 3-minutes of deflation between each bout. The pressure was set relative to each individual’s thigh circumference. Significant increases in muscle thickness were observed for both the vastus lateralis (VL) [6%, p = 0.027] and rectus femoris (RF) [22%, p = 0.001] along with a significant decrease in plasma volume [15%, p = 0.001]. Ratings of discomfort during the BFR protocol peaked at 2.7 (light discomfort). There were no significant changes with whole blood lactate, electromyography (EMG), or heart rate (HR), however, there was a trend for a significant increase in HR during the 5th inflation (p = 0.057). In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that the attenuation of both muscle atrophy and declines in strength previously observed with brief applications of BFR may have been mediated through an acute fluid shift induced increase in muscle size. This is supported by our finding that the changes in muscle thickness are maintained even after the cuffs have been removed.

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Abstract

Ischemic colitis is the most common form of an iatrogenic intestinal ischemia following an aortic surgery. It can be transient and self-limiting but, when severe, is associated with mortality even as high as 80%. Careful preoperative assessment can help to anticipate the need for the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) reimplantation. Some patients lack the sufficient collateral blood supply to the colon and can benefit from the IMA reimplantation, which not only reduces the risk of postoperative colonic necrosis but also can be lifesaving. We report a case of a successful reimplantation of the IMA based on the careful preoperative planning. If unrecognized, this undoubtedly would lead to postoperative colonic ischemia. Therefore, we feel it is important to share our experience regarding the successful management of the presented case.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors:
M. Zdravkovic
,
B. Vujusić-Tesic
,
M. Krotin
,
I. Nedeljkovic
,
S. Mazic
,
J. Stepanovic
,
M. Tesic
, and
M. Ostojic

. Spataro M.A. Proschan P. Spirito 1991 The upper limit of physiologic cardiac hypertrophy in highly trained elite

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