The use of dataloggers in food engineering is discussed in two examples. The first example describes the measurement of temperature and humidity in a bulk tank car during transport and unloading. In the case of wheat flour the relative humidity in the air raises from about 80% r.h. to values near 100% r.h. at the air compressors for pneumatical unloading start working. The second example shows the use of the datalogger in education on heat transfer. The device was fixed in an ice cream sample which was placed in a store at –25°C. The measured hardeningtime agrees well to theoretical heat transfer calculation.
We studied thermal transitions and physical stability
of oil-in-water emulsions containing different milk fat compositions, arising
from anhydrous milk fat alone (AMF) or in mixture (2:1 mass ratio) with a
high melting temperature (AMF–HMT) or a low melting temperature (AMF–LMT)
fraction. Changes in thermal transitions in bulk fat and emulsion samples
were monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under controlled
cooling and reheating cycles performed between 50 and –45C (5C
min–1). Comparison between bulk fat samples
and emulsions indicated similar values of melting completion temperature,
whereas initial temperature of fat crystallization (Tonset)
seemed to be differently affected by storage temperature depending on triacylglycerols
(TAG) composition. After storage at 4C, Tonset
values were very similar for emulsified and non-emulsified AMF–HMT blend,
whereas they were lower (by approx. 6C) for emulsions containing AMF
or mixture of AMF–LMT fraction. After storage at –30C, Tonset values of re-crystallization
were higher in emulsion samples than in bulk fat blends, whatever the TAG
fat composition. Light scattering measurements and fluorescence microscopic
observations indicated differences in fat droplet aggregation-coalescence
under freeze-thaw procedure, depending on emulsion fat composition. It appeared
that under quiescent freezing, emulsion containing AMF–LMT fraction
was much less resistant to fat droplet aggregation-coalescence than emulsions
containing AMF or AMF–HMT fraction. Our results indicated the role of
fat droplet liquid-solid content on emulsion stability.
Desserts are the most aromatic and delicious parts of meals, and also a source of nutrient trace elements for the human body. In this work, instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the trace elements antimony, chromium, cobalt, iron, manganese, potassium, rubidium, scandium, sodium and zinc in creme caramel, ice-creams, jellies and mousse dried desserts from the Greek market. According to our results, their classification as nutrient trace element sources for the human body is: mousse>ice-cream>creme caramel>jelly. Among the different studied flavours, chocolate and its derivatives are the richest in nutrient trace elements. Moreover, the consumption of one portion of a chocolate mousse dessert can offer to the human body about 60% of the daily required chromium, 40% of the daily required iron, 10% of the daily required manganese and potassium and 4% of the daily required sodium.
Authors:A. Lugasi, G. Kádár, K. Alb, E. Schreiber Molnár, and É. Martos
Caffeine content of 377 food samples obtained from the Hungarian market was measured by a validated HPLC technique. The highest caffeine levels were observed in different instant coffees (3954±2355 mg/100 g) and ground coffee beans (1634±389 mg/100 g). Significant amount of caffeine could be detected in energy drinks (119 mg in 100 ml at the highest end). The caffeine content of different coffee drinks varied between 40 and 203 mg/100 ml. Significant amount of caffeine could be measured in special instant coffees called 2in1 and 3in1 (120 mg per serving at the highest end), cacao powders (125 mg in 100 g), in chocolates (on average, 16.1 mg and 52.5 mg in 100 g milk and dark chocolate, respectively), breakfast cereals (between 5.7 and 15.8 mg per 100 g), and ice creams (1.7–24.8 mg in 100 g).