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Konstantinápolyi Szent Lázár, a képrombolás vértanúja

Saint Lazarus of Constantinople, the martyr of iconoclasm

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Zoltán Szilárdfy

Abstract

Information on the life of Saint Lazarus was collected by the scribe who continued the Chronicle of Theophanes. It was also elaborated by Kedrenos. He was born in Armenia and came to byzantium at a young age to become a painter and monk. In 832 Theophilus order the destruction of icons. To persuade Lazarus, he summoned him. The tortures of the painter were put an end to by Empress Theodora. In gratitude to her, he painted an icon of St John the Baptist which worked miracles after Theophilus' death, and then he painted a large icon of Christ. Emperor of Byzantium Michael III sent him to Rome in 856 to the newly elected Pope Benedict III to discuss the possibility of reconciliation between the two churches and restore unity. An uncertain source mentions his death during another mission to Rome in 867. He is allegedly buried in Galata in the monastery of Evanderes. His cult in the Roman church was actualized by the “iconoclasm” of the Protestants. The council of Trent – similarly to the second Council of Nicea earlier – decided in favour of the veneration of icons.

The finest specimens of St Lazarus's iconography were produced by the noted copperplate engraving workshops of Augsburg. The illustration dating from 1753 of the Life of Saints by Joseph Giulini was popular all over Europe. In the engraving by Christian Halbauer made after Johann Wolfgang Baumgartner of the episode of Lazarus' arrest Christ on the cross can also be seen. The most important depiction shows the sainted monastic painter in a baroque atelier, working on his painting of St John the Baptist in the monastery of Phoberon. The hagiographic series of Annus dierum Sanctorum was sold in a volume already in the age of its creation, between 1737 and 1742. The indispensable series for the research of baroque iconography was the outcome of the joint endeavour of Gottfried Bernard Göz, Joseph Sebastian and Johann Baptist Klauber in Augsburg. Among the historicizing painters of the 19th century, Domenico Morelli depicted the four monks persecuted by Emperor Theophilus in bright colours in 1855, with the icon of St John the Baptism hanging behind the four condemned monks.

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Mindell, M.: Monophysite church decoration. In: Bryer, A., Herrin, J. (szerk.): Iconoclasm. Birmingham, 1977, 59–74. Borbou, C.: Health patterns of proto-Byzantine populations (6th–7th centuries AD

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. VAH 16a. Barber, Ch. 2002 Figure and Likeness. On the Limits of Representation in Byzantine Iconoclasm. Princeton-Oxford. Barber Ch

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proponents and iconoclasm in its views – the strand of phonological work dubbed Exemplar Phonology (e.g., Pierrehumbert 2001 ) fits in here. 5 This model of the current landscape of phonological theory does not have a distinct place for ‘Laboratory Phonology

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