, meningitis, and bacteremia and is the most common cause of otitis media in infants and young children [ 3 ]. The daily identification of S. pneumoniae in the routine laboratory diagnostic relies on two features: solubility in bile (sodium deoxycholate
contentious closeness between E. coli and Shigella spp. led to many challenges in their identification and differentiation in routine laboratories. Nowadays, many methods have been suggested to solve this dilemma as Duplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain
The miniaturized calorimetric devices furnish a reduced working flat surface and permits measurements with extremely low-mass
quantities. The experimental sensitivity shows relevant position dependence with x-y surface coordinates and with z-distance. The device identification is realized via a 2-D model based in Fourier general equation.
Using the Marquardt method the experimental flat surface device can be identified and the fitted parameters used to simulate
the behavior of the experimental system. From the model, the effects of several dissipation configurations can be evaluated.
Also, via the RC-analogy, a way to 3-D experimental devices is roughly described.
Sixty-eight Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains were isolated from porcine acute pleuropneumonia cases from different parts of Hungary between 2000 and 2014. A total of 41 isolates were identified as A. pleuropneumoniae bio-type I and 27 strains as biotype II based on cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate metabolic fingerprinting in the species-level identification of A. pleuropneumoniae isolates. Utilisation of carbon sources by these field isolates and six reference strains was characterised by the Biolog system (GN2 Microplate, MicroLog3 Version 4.20.05 software). Twenty-nine field strains were correctly identified by the Biolog system as A. pleuropneumoniae, 36 strains as A. lignieresii, two strains as H. paraphrohaemolyticus and one strain as A. equuli after 24 h of incubation. Among the six A. pleuropneumoniae reference strains the Biolog system identified one strain as A. pleuropneumoniae, four as A. lignieresii and one as H. paraphrohaemolyticus. There was no correlation between biotypes and serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae and the carbon source utilisation pattern and species identification by the Biolog system. our data indicate that the efficacy of the Biolog system used here could be improved by including phenotypes of more A. pleuropneumoniae strains representing a wider geographical occurrence into the database.
Epimedium pubescens Maxim. and Epimedium koreanum Nakai. are two common and confused species of Herba Epimedii in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 edition. Different species and growing conditions lead to chemical differences between the two species which may result in the improper clinical usage. In this work, a new method based on rapid-resolution liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC/TOFMS) has been developed for identification and differentiation of major flavonoids in two kinds of Epimedium extract and rat plasma. The compounds were identified effectively based on the accurate extract masses and formulae acquired by RRLC/TOFMS. The fragmentation rules deduced by collision-induced dissociation (CID) were successfully implemented in distinguishing some of the isomers, further validating the results. By using the combined analytical techniques, a total of 40 major flavonoids in extracts of two kinds of Epimedium were identified within 30 min, including 31 common components and 9 characteristic components. After oral administration, three prototype compounds in rat plasma were detected by comparing the constituents measured in vitro with those in vivo, and five metabolites were identified by contrasting the fragmentation rules. The identification and structural elucidation of the chemical constituents provided essential data for further pharmacological and clinical studies on different species of Epimedium.
the city planning, and their map identification should be incorporated into zoning maps. Their restoration into the original function is not the only solution; any form of protection in situ by putting them to different uses is also valuable. Changing
range of visible indicators might be used to assist in the reliable identification of problem gamblers in situ. These concerns are described, for example, in a review by Allcock ( 2002 ) that documents the views of a number of international experts and
The aim of this study was to compare four identification procedures to detect Dichelobacter nodosus and develop a rapid, simple and effective method to identify D. nodosus strains isolated from cases of ovine footrot. The four methods used were: (a) the classic guidelines set down by Holdeman et al. (1977) and Summanen et al. (1993) which are based on gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and different biochemical tests, this method was considered as landmark; (b) Baron and Citron's flowchart for the rapid identification of Gram-negative rod-shaped anaerobes (1997); (c) the API rapid 32 A system (bio Mérieux), and (d) Mast ID™ Anaerobe ID Ring (MID8) (Mast Diagnostics). None of the four methods used allowed us to correctly identify the D. nodosus strains (neither the strains isolated from cases of ovine footrot nor those originating from type collection). Because of the difficulties encountered in obtaining a correct identification of D. nodosus, we propose a simple, rapid and effective way to achieve this task. Our flowchart will provide the means to identify this microorganism in any laboratory of general microbiology without having to use any specialised equipment.